BIO 171  - First Exam  - 2013
Links go to pertinent passages of book


Multiple Choice

            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

                        Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.



_______ 1.    Which of these is a domain?

                        a.  Gene                       b.  Allele                     c.  Hydration shell

                        d.  Active site                  e.  Yankee Stadium




_______ 2.   Digestive breakdown of organic polymers should involve

                        a.  Temperature changes                      b.  Hydrolysis

                        c.  Dehydration synthesis                     d.  Phosphorylation

                                    e.  Bloated tummies and nasty burps




_______ 3.   Electrons are often transported by

                        a.  Carriers                               b.  Oxygen                             c.  Hydrogen

                        d.  Lipids                                             e.  Little bitty briefcases




_______ 4.    An antigen is

                        a.  Produced by the immune system               b.  A foreign molecule

                        c.  A toxin aimed at enzymes                         d.  A form of RNA

                                    e.  A cross between an ant, a tiger, and…I give up




_______ 5.    Group transfer potential is often at play in the actions of

                        a.  Receptors                  b.  Carbohydrates                             c.  Coenzymes

                        d.  ATP                                     e.  Vacation packages




_______ 6.   At optimum temperature

                        a.  Participating particles are all moving their fastest

                        b.  The greatest number of enzyme molecules are active

                        c.  All charges are balanced

                        d.  All of the above

                        e.  Everything’s cozy



_______ 7.   Hormones are what type of molecules?

                        a.  Always proteins                             b.  Proteins or carbohydrates

                        c.  Proteins or lipids                            d.  Always carbohydrates

                                                e.  The type that can get you in a lot of trouble




_______ 8.    If DNA polymerase is broken down, it will yield

                        a.  DNA                                   b.  Amino acids                         c.  Sugars

                        d.  Nucleotides                           e.  A terribly depressing status update




_______ 9.    A Q10 expresses a relationship between

                        a.  Enzymes and pH                                  b.  Reactions and temperature

                        c.  Enzymes and temperature                     d.  Reactions and pH

                                                e.  A letter (Q) and a number (10)




_______ 10.    Proteins denature because

                        a.  Nitrogens are lost                           b.  Carbons are lost

                        c.  Covalent bonds break                     d.  Hydrogen bonds break

                                                e.  They have gotten really depressed




_______ 11.   Some plants do C4 photosynthesis in order to

                        a.  Conserve water                              b.  Increase glucose output

                        c.  Reduce ATP needs                         d.  Reduce mineral needs

                                        e.  Lord it over all the other plants




_______ 12.  Enzymes are generally NOT good at

                        a. Attaching to substrates                    b.  Moving electrons

                        c. Releasing products                          d.  Lowering activation energy

                                                       e.   Skateboarding




_______ 13.   An antenna complex is a collection of

                        a.  Enzymes and substrates                 b.  Unstable isotopes

                        c.  Polar groups                                  d. Chlorophyll molecules

                                                e.  Houses that don’t get cable




_______ 14.   Which bonds represent attractions between charges, full or partial?

                        a.  Ionic & hydrogen                           b.  Covalent & hydrogen

                        c.  Ionic & covalent                             d.  All of these do

                                                e.  Sticky buns…err, bonds




_______ 15.   A newly-made protein is helped into the proper conformation by

                        a.  Codons                                           b.  Phospholipids

                        c.  Chaperonins                                    d.  Ligands

                                                e.  Walmart greeters




_______ 16.  If an effect is allosteric, there is

                        a.  No actual effect – chemistry is unaltered

                        b.  A change in a gene code

                        c.  A shape change

                        d.  A loss from one end of the string

                        e.  A molecular Allosaurus biting things




_______ 17.    The rate of production of a pathway can be limited by

                        a.  The slowest enzyme

                        b.  The amount of one starting substrate

                        c.  The amount of a single enzyme

                        d.  All of these

                        e.  Whether the shop is unionized





_______ 18.   Overall, producers, compared to consumers,

                        a.  Have more species and more biomass

                        b.  Have fewer species and more biomass

                        c.  Have more species and less biomass

                        d.  Have fewer species and less biomass

                        e.  Are the ones running the system (is that funny?)



Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.    The two major components of a lipid molecule -






2.    What, in general, are coupled in coupled reactions?






3.   What are two different ways that minerals can function in cellular systems?






4.   What are two different uses for carotenoids?






5.   Two different types of proteins that depend upon stereospecificity to work properly -






6.   For any one of the three types of nuclear radiation, name the type and describe its basic form.






7.    Label  with these three colors:  red, purple, green.




   HIGHER                                                                                                 LOWER

   FREQUENCY  ______________________________________________  FREQUENCY

8.   Given here is one side (strand) of DNA.  Starting with this strand, show:

Starting  _______________________________________________________________________________

Strand    G   G   T   A   A   T   G   C   C   T   A   T   C   T   C   A   A   T   T   G   C



                                                  Messenger  RNA from 1st strand

9.    In any typical food chain, what eventually happens to most of the


10.  What are the two primary electron-carrying coenzymes?






11.   Label the following chemical reaction with the general terms for each part –



        A           +             B                        x           >            C


   __________         ___________         ______________          _____________

12.  Give the names of two different proteins involved in movement.






13.  In proteins, give two of the three groups attached to an alpha carbon.






14.  What are two different ways to keep a reaction from hitting equilibrium?






15.  Give a reason why many cellular reactions happen in small membrane-enclosed organelles.  There are several different possible answers – just give one.




16.  Briefly describe the way electromagnetic reradiation happens.





Long Answer.  


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.


1.   Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.














2.   For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.

First Step -


Input -
Output -
Second Step -


Input -
Output -


3.   For carbohydrates:

Basic formula of

simple carbohydrate:     ___________________________

Basic uses of starches

in plants:

Molecule glucose energy is usually shifted to -


4.   Briefly describe three different ways that enzymes can be inhibited.








5.   All for the most common isotope –




# 9

Column 7

How many


How many



ion form?

How many

electrons? (Radical form)


6.   For three different properties of water -


How it works on a molecular level








7.   In the graph below of Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, explain why the curve is doing what it’s doing at each marked point, in terms of the enzyme molecules at work.   Can't get it to format - fill in what's missing...










     V                                      __________________________


                                     Substrate Concentration (as Enzymes remain constant) ---->


8.   For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.















Link to Answer Key




Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


What atom is NOT part of “HONC,” yet commonly forms 2-bond “bridges” within protein molecules?  Three Points.



What is odd and almost unexplainable about the amino acids used by living things?  Three Points.



What movie monsters are prions compared to, and why?  Three Points.



What are the two different responses that ants have to ant alarmones?  Three Points.



What type of molecule used to be thought to have just a couple of cellular functions, but is now found to have a huge variety?



What real-life situations should follow a Michaelis-Menten pattern?  Two Points Each, up to Three.




What is a “typical” turnover number (Two Points), and why are such numbers largely artificial?  (Three Points)




Why might a species have two enzymes doing the same reaction?  Three Points. 




What simple feature of vitamins is generally not known?  Three Points.







BIO 171

Michael McDarby


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