BIO 171  - First Exam  - 2014

Links go to pertinent passages of book


Multiple Choice. 

            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

                        Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.


_______ 1.   The function of chaperonins and prions involve

                        a.   Electron transfer             b.  Ionization              c.  Protein synthesis

                        d.  Protein folding                 e.  Tough Jeopardy questions



_______ 2.    Ionic bonds are not major “players” in biological systems because of

                        a.   Their weakness                            b.  Their strength

                        c.   Hydration shells                           d.  The components’ uselessness

                                    e.  The way the other bonds make fun of them



_______ 3.    Denaturation usually involves

                        a.  Loss of minerals                            b. Breaking hydrogen bonds

                        c.  Reduction of multiple bonds           d. Breaking ionic bonds

                        e.  Something that happens when that thing does that other thing



_______ 4.    The “10” in Q10 represents

                        a.  Substrate concentration                   b.  Enzyme concentration

                        c.  Temperature                                  d.  Genetic units

                                                e.  More than 9, less than 11



_______ 5.    In a base, the predominant ion is

                        a.   Na+                          b.  H+                       c.  Cl-                            d.  OH-

                                           e.  Whichever one can beat the other ones up



_______ 6.   In dynamic equilibrium,

                        a.  Rates are equal in both directions

                        b.  Amounts on both sides are equal

                        c.  Enzymes are conducting both reactions

                        d.  All of the above

                        e.  Really energetic music is playing as background




_______ 7.    A variant gene sequence is

                        a.   A chromosome                b.  An actin                 c.  An allele

                        d.  An isomer                    e.  Nothing too embarrassing, really…




_______ 8.   After about 60,000 years, carbon dating is unreliable.  Why?

                        a.  Too little radioactive carbon

                        b.  Too much nitrogen product

                        c.  Radioactivity has broken down the molecules

                        d.  Almost all of the carbon is gone

                        e.  No eHarmony before then




_______ 9.    Redox reactions usually involve the movement of

                        a.  Phosphates                  b.  Amino acids                      c.   Nucleotides

                        d.  Hydrogen atoms               e.  Wait!  Where’s the answer?




_______ 10.    Hydrolysis is a critical reaction in

                        a.  Digestion                                       b.   Enzyme function

                        c.  Solution formation                       d.   Freezing

                        e.  Something I’m supposed to remember – unless it’s a trick!




_______ 11.  Which is the formula for aldose?

                        a.  C12H12O24              b.  C4H8O4                  c.  C6N4H20O6

                        d.  CPO4                                 e.  a2 + b2 = c2




_______ 12.   In many coupled reactions, ATP is involved for

                        a.  Group transfer                              b.  Reduction

                        c.  Oxidation                                      d.  Absorbing ions

                                    e.   Political reasons – it’s got connections



_______ 13.   Water has its greatest density at

                        a.  0oC                                     b.  100oC                                c.  4oC

                        d.  -100oC                   e.   Can’t it just be good, does it have to be the greatest?



_______ 14.   An active site is a type of

                        a.  Bond                                  b.  Domain                              c.  R group

                        d.  Prosthetic group                                       e.  Busy place



_______ 15.   Tubulin would be

                        a.  Broken down for energy              b.  A major structural component in plants

                        c.  Made up of amino acids               d.  Hydrophobic

                                    e.  The last instrument anyone in the band wants to play



_______ 16.   Cell processes often happen better in small chambers.  Why?

                        a.  Crowding of reacting materials

                        b.  Isolation from other materials

                        c.  Product removal

                        d.  All of these

                        e.  You don’t want the other particles to see what’s going on



_______ 17.   Enzymes

                        a.  Convert activation energy to reaction energy

                        b.  Add to activation energy

                        c.  Reduce activation energy

                        d.  Supply activation energy

                        e.  Probably have something to do with activation energy



_______ 18.   The basic organic molecules, in order of carbon numbers:

                        a.  Ethane, methane, propane                        b.  Methane, ethane, propane

                        c.  Propane, ethane, methane                        d.  Ethane, propane, methane

                                                e.  One-ane, two-ane, three-ane


Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.

1.  What are two different categories of proteins where stereospecificity is critically important?

2.   On the enzyme-and-temperature curve, rates drop off from the optimum.  Why do they drop off -







3a.  Which radical is often released during cell activities?

3b.  Why is that radical (or radicals in general) particularly reactive?



4.   What are two different biological uses for carotenoids?


5.    Label the following chemical reaction with the general terms for each part –


        A           +             B                        x           >            C


   __________         ___________         ______________          _____________

6.   In cellular pathways, what are two different limiting factors?


7.  Explain the significance of HONC.




8.   Given here is one side (strand) of DNA.  Starting with this strand, show:


Strand    G   T   A   A   T   G   A   C   C   T   A   T   C   T   C   A   A   T   T   G   C



                                     Messenger  RNA from 1st strand

8-Bonus – How many codons are here?  (You can answer even if you don’t answer #8) 2 Points.

9.   Briefly describe how (and when) end-product inhibition works.





10.  For an aqueous sugar solution, what is the -





11.  Two different ways that minerals can function in biological systems -


12.  In reradiation, briefly explain why the radiation frequency coming out is different than it was going in.




13a.  Pick a property of water critical to Life on Earth existing – 



13b.  Explain why that property is critical -

14.  What are the functions of the two active domain types in an antibody molecule?


15.  What is meant by an allosteric effect?




16.  What are the three parts of an amino acid molecule?

17.   Give two different reasons why water evaporation is a very effective cooling process.


Long Answer.   


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.

1.   Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.



2.   All for the most common isotope –




# 4

Column 2

How many


How many



ion form?

How many

electrons? (Radical form)

4.   For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.


4.   Give three different terms / explanations for non-coding DNA (“junk” DNA) –




5.  In the graph below of Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, explain why the curve is doing what it’s doing at each marked point, in terms of the enzyme molecules at work.

Can't get graph right - marked at upslope, curve near top, flat top.
6.    For lipids -
Basic molecular components -

2 Different Uses

in Living Things

7.   Briefly describe three different ways that enzymes can be inhibited.




8.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: 

Violet.  X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue. Ultraviolet.

        High Frequency       \                      Visible Range                             /       Low Frequency    

          *                         * /    *         *                                                  *    \   *


  Link to Answer Key




Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


What factors were used to set up the first periodic table?  Three Points.



Danger-wise, what’s the upside and downside of alpha radiation?  Two Points each.



What happens to food molecules in the stomach?  Three Points.



Fiber “uses” what property of water to relieve constipation?  Three Points.



Two organic functional groups have taken on particular significance in just the last few years.  Which?  Two Points Each.



Give an example of an artificial polymer.  Three Points.




Why would plants produce starches that are relatively easy to break down?  Three Points.




Which organic components always show the same chirality, though no one knows exactly why?  Three Points.




Why might an animal have two different enzymes to do the same job?  Three Points.





What is “odd” about the definition of vitamin?  Three Points.




What Vitamin class are NAD and FAD both in?  Three Points





BIO 171

Michael McDarby


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