BIO 171 - First Exam - 2018

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1. Hormones would be

                    a. Proteins only         b. Proteins or nucleic acids         c. Proteins or lipids
                    d. Lipids only                 e. Are there fear hormones? I think I have those…

_______ 2. DNA proofreading molecules respond to

                    a. Codes for nonworking proteins         b. Nonfunctional RNA        c. Shortened codons
                    d. Bumps and dips on the strands                e. Bad grammar on the molecular level

_______ 3. Surface tension of water is closely associated with

                    a. Cohesion         b. Adhesion         c. Heat stability        d. Hydration shells         e. Scumminess

_______ 4. In dynamic equilibrium, what’s actually at equilibrium?

                    a. Particle flow         b. Substrates and products        c. Reaction rates         d. Enzyme attach and release
                                                            e. …something…dynamic…

_______5. A saturated organic molecule will have

                    a. Attached water         b. All hydrogen bonds        c. Maximum carbon content
                    d. No double bonds                    e. A very squishy texture

_______6. Noncoding DNA contains

                    a. Several different types of codes         b. Membrane carriers        c. Nothing functional
                    d. Stretches that are actually RNA                    e. DNA from the junk drawer

_______7. Hot, dry conditions are associated with

                    a. Chemosynthesis                 b. Allosteric inhibitions                 c. C4 photosynthesis
                    d. Lowered turnover numbers                     e. Retirement communities

_______8. Proteins are properly folded by

                    a. Prions         b. Conformation enzymes         c. Function factors        d. Chaperonins         e. Hotel clerks

_______9. In a container of “pure” water, how much H20 is really H+ and OH-?

                    a. 7%             b. 1/7             c. 10-7             d. 107            e. 7 bits

_______10. Lactase helps sucrose split into glucose and galactose – it is

                    a. An enzyme doing hydrolysis of a carbohydrate
                    b. A carbohydrate doing hydrolysis of a lipid
                    c. An enzyme doing dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate
                    d. A lipid doing dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate
                    e. Something they put in the “special” milk

_______11. Which would likely involve actin?

                    a. Molecule being carried through a membrane          b. Antibody attachment
                    c. White blood cell crawling                                     d. Alarmone signal
                                                e. Um, gettin up on a stage?

_______12. Which is typically hydrophobic?

                    a. Amino acids         b. Lipids         c. Starches        d. Nucleic acids
                                e. What happened to “English -based” terms?

_______13. What’s the “10” in a Q10?

                    a. pH         b. Rate of reaction         c. Temperature        d. Amount of product         e. A number after 9

_______14. Which is a ligand?

                    a. Receptor         b. Lipid         c. Substrate        d. Carrier         e. Isn’t that an RPG character?

_______15. NAD and FAD are major _________ using _________.

                    a. Enzymes…ATP             b. Cofactors…oxygen            c. Coenzymes…ATP
                    d. Electron carriers…hydrogen                e. Annoyances…stuff I don’t remember

_______16. A codon is

                    a. 3 possible codes for the same amino acid           b. A variation in a whole gene code
                    c. 3 nucleotides coding for 1 amino acid                d. 1 nucleotide coding for a 3-amino acid sequence
                                                    e. What you’re putting when it’s cold

_______17. In end-product inhibition, the inhibitor

                    a. Attaches to the first pathway enzyme            b. Attaches to the last pathway enzyme
                    c. Attaches to the end product                          d. Attaches to one or more of the substrates
                                                e. Probably attaches to something

_______18. Which is true about decomposers?

                    a. They recycle all of the energy in "leftover" biological material
                    b. They are a type of producer
                    c. They recycle the materials in "leftover" biological material
                    d. All of the above are true
                    e. Dey write demusic

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. What’s it mean if two molecules are isomers?

2. Give an example of purposeful or a malfunction of stereospecificity.

3. At hydrothermal vents, what’s happening -

production –

4. Why is carbon dating unreliable beyond about 60,000 years?

5. Give the basic components of a lipid molecule, including how many of each.

6. Briefly explain how reradiation at a predictable frequency happens.

7. What is the significance of HONC? Give some details.

8. Two different organic molecule types that are always polymers -


9. What happens in a coupled reaction?

10. Give two different general functions of carotenoids.


11. How do consumers compare to producers in -

12. In a plot of enzyme-mediated reaction rate and pH, the rates drop off in both directions from the optimum. Explain the drops -

13. Ionically-bonded molecules are rare in living things. Briefly explain why.

14. Why do plants produce what we considered “digestible” starches?

15. Chemically, what is a domain?

16. Briefly explain how temperate lakes “turn over.”

17. What are two different cellular chemical functions performed by minerals?


18. Briefly explain how ATP’s group transfer potential works.

19. Biologically, what is an antenna complex?

Long Answer.

 Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.

2.  All for the most common isotope –




# 20

Column 2

How many


How many



How many
(Radical form)

3. Briefly describe three different ways that enzymes can be inhibited.



4.  For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.

5.  In the graph below of Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, explain why the curve is doing what it’s doing at each marked point, in terms of the enzyme molecules at work.

Can't get graph right - marked at upslope, curve near top, flat top.

6.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
       *                           *   /   *       *                        *   \   *

7. For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.
Name Input Output

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

How can the emission of radiation cause a change of element? Three Points.

What body functions actually make use of oxygen radicals? Two Points Each.

Why is there so much nitrogen in the atmosphere? Three Points.

Sulfur is below oxygen on the Periodic Table. What should be its function inside protein molecules? Three Points.

What critical process is done by the fungal symbionts of plants? Three Points.

Give a plausible reason why walnuts, which definitely contain significant amounts of protein, typically do not show it on our lab tests. Three Points.

When proteins are made, which end is at the front spot? Three Points.

Life’s amino acids have what hard-to-explain feature? Three Points.

Why is it called denaturation? Three Points.

Why might an enzyme-mediated reaction hit equilibrium quickly? Three Points.

How does the global greenhouse effect work? Three Points.




BIO 171

Michael McDarby


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