BI 171 - Second Exam - 2002

NOTE - the numbers link to related information in the book.  Not all information on old exams is in the new book (so some numbers have no link), and if something looks unfamiliar, you can check to see if it's from a chapter you're supposed to be studying for your current exam.

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1. A contractile vacuole is most likely to be found in which sort of organism?

                        a. Plants                 b. Fresh water                 c. Prokaryotes
                        d. Multicellular                     e. One with a big vocabulary


_______ 2. Of cofactors and prosthetic groups, which commonly involve minerals?

a. Both             b. Cofactors only            c. Neither
                        d. Prosthetic groups only   
             e. Too late to offer a bribe, huh-?


_______ 3. A nucleolus would contain much of a cellís

                        a. DNA                     b. Enzymes                 c. RNA
                        d. Microtubules                     e. Beer reserve


_______ 4. A Q10 involves

                        a. Substrate & product concentrations 
                        b. Reaction rate & substrate amounts
                        c. Cell volume and surface ratios
                        d. Reaction rate & temperature
                          e. Some sort of poker hand


_______5. A closed system can exchange ______ with the "outside"?

a. Matter only                             b. Matter and energy
                        c. Energy only                            d. Neither matter nor energy
                                     e. Anything, with the sales receipt


_______6. What is a ligand?

                        a. Digestive cell organelle
b. Molecule that attaches to a protein
c. Particular type of cell
d. Area inside a protein
e. Thatís just part of a word, right-?


_______7. In the environment, many metabolic reactions are limited by the

                        a. Enzyme type                             b. Most common reactant
                        c. Rarest reactant                          d. Activation reciprocal
                                                e. Environmental police


_______8. Alpha and beta are designations of
                        a. Mitochondria                             b. Amino acid chiralities
                        c. Reaction equilibria                     d. Carbohydrate bonds
                                 e. Really pretentious Sesame Street characters


_______9. The functional part of glycocalex is usually

                        a. Lipid             b. Carbohydrate            c. Nucleic acids
                          d. Enzymes                    e. Just below the ticklish bits


_______ 10. Which role is commonly played by an irreversible enzyme inhibitor?

a. Poison             b. Structural molecule                c. Digestive juice
                         d. Process regulator            e. I had a car that wouldnít go in reverse once...


_______ 11. Which would commonly be used for swimming?

                        a. Pseudopod             b. Flagellum                 c. Microvilli
                       d. Peroxisomes                         e. Speedos


_______ 12.  Cytosol is

                        a. The skeletal matrix inside the nucleus 
                        b. All the fluid inside a cell
                        c. Fluid between the organelles 
                        d. Extracellular matrix
                          e. Some sort of kitchen cleanser


_______ 13. The presence of Golgi Bodies implies the ability of a cell to

                        a. Reproduce                 b. Secrete                 c. Move
                        d. Digest                                 e. Be even more boring


_______14. Random kinetic energy is also known as

                        a. Heat                     b. Ions                     c. Metabolism
                        d. Activation energy             e. Dwayne to its friends


_______15. The best indicator of quality in a microscope is its

                        a. Maximum magnification                         b. Cost
                        c. Imaging system type                              d. Resolution
                                     e. Place in the Consumer Reports table


_______16. The ring structure in simple sugars

                        a. Is extremely stable
                        b. Can open at the oxygen
                        c. Can open at the middle carbon
                        d. Can open at any of the ring carbons
                        e. Is more of a "brrrrt" than a "dingalingaling"


_______17. At an enzymeís optimum temperature, a balance exists between

                        a. Atomic / molecular motion and protein shape stability
                        b. The forward and the backward reactions
                        c. Substrate availability and binding strength
                        d. Positive ion influences and negative ion influences
                        e. Um, warm and cool?


_______ 18.  Apoptosis occurs when

                        a. An enzyme reaches optimum pH
                        b. A cell is no longer useful
                        c. The activation energy of a reaction is lowered
                        d. Polymers are synthesized
                        e. There is a balloon animal tragedy


Short Answer. 

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Describe how the two common approaches to indirect enzyme inhibition work.



2. Electrophoresis separates peptides according to which two features?
3. Four one of the four fundamental forces, name it and give one example of it having an impact on a biological system.




4. Describe one of the types of genetic redundancy.



5. What is the relationship between the strength of a bond and the energy it contains?




6. What are two things that can be changed, and how do they need to be changed, to speed up an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?



7. What exactly does it mean when a protein begins to denature?



8. What are two basic tenets of the Cell Theory?

9. Briefly explain the process of dehydration synthesis, applied to two amino acid molecules.



10 . What does it mean if a reaction is in dynamic equilibrium?




11. For codons:
What is
done with
12. What are two internal organelles that can be found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
13. Why is sectioning often necessary for microscopic study?




14. What are two of the three components of a nucleotide?

15. Give two different pieces of supporting evidence for the endosymbiont theory.


Long Answer. 

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Briefly describe three different types of functions found in proteins that depend upon stereospecificity.





2. Name and briefly define the levels of protein structure.







3. Name and give the basic function of three organelles based upon internal membranes.





4. Give three sets of differences between cilia and flagella.





5. Name and describe three different substructures associated with the nucleus.





6. Name and give the atomic and bond arrangement in four different organic functional groups.







7. For the graph below of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, label the axes and then at each point marked on the graph, describe whatís happening among the enzyme & substrate molecules.















Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

If an organic material does not have a name that fits the "rules" for its type, what is probably the explanation? Three Points.



Why donít enzymes catalyze both forward and backward reactions equally? Four Points.



What may be the critical flaw in the concept behind molecular clocks? Three Points.



If the enzyme & temperature curve for an organism is very broad and pretty flat, what sort of organism is it, and why? Four Points.



Why is the concept of vitamins confusing in its typical usage? Three Points.



What reasons might explain why the Endosymbiont Theory was not received well at first? Three Points Each.




How can a researcher make an ameba appear to be frustrated? Three Points.




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