BI 171 - Second Exam - 2004

Links go from numbers to pertinent passages in the book.

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

 

_______ 1. Cells use _______ as a main fuel, but ________ as the actual source of energy for processes

                    a. Starch...sugar             b. Sugar...ATP             c. Starch...DNA
                    d. Proteins...                  e. Twinkies....Red Bull

 

_______ 2. Various types of minerals are commonly found in

                    a. Starches                     b. Sugars                     c. Nucleic acids
                    d. Prosthetic groups                 e. Rocks...but thatís not biology...

 

_______ 3. Which are involved in getting proteins properly folded?

                    a. Transfer RNA                 b. Isomers                 c. Chaperonins
                    d. Messenger RNA                 e. Molecular launderettes

 

_______ 4. Different isotopes would have different

                    a. Weights                     b. Charges                 c. Element symbols
                    d. Orbitals                     e. Opinions

 

_______5. Compared to an unsaturated molecule, a saturated version should have more

                    a. Ring structures             b. Double bonds                 c. Oxygens
                    d. Hydrogens                         e. Satur - somethings

 

_______6. For very simple hydrocarbons, the naming order goes

                    a. Prop-, eth-, meth-                         b. Eth-, meth-, prop-
                    c. Prop-, meth-, eth-                         d. Meth-, eth-, prop-
                                        e. Snap-, crackle-, pop-

 

_______7. Alternation of generations often includes a body form change particularly for

                    a. Defense                     b. Dispersal                     c. Feeding
                    d. Photosynthesis           e. I donít like these - could I have another answer?

 

_______8. Which has uracil as a component?

                    a. Mitochondrial DNA             b. Glucose             c. Protein
                    d. Transfer RNA                     e. Oh, uracilly person-!

 

_______9. The active ingredient in the waterproofing ScotchGuard spray is

                    a. Ionized                                         b. Hydrophilic
                    c. Hydrophobic                                 d. Electronized
                    e. Something that, if you discover it, theyíll tape you to death

 

_______10. Which usually exist as one to a few molecular ring structures?

                    a. Sugars                     b. Lipids                     c. Water
                    d. Starches                  e. The Molecule Wrestling Federation

 

_______11. Hormones are likely to be

                    a. Ions or radicals                                 b. Lipids or nucleic acids
                    c. Carbohydrates or proteins                 d. Proteins or lipids
                                        e. What gets folks in lots of trouble

 

_______12. Large molecules are often held together in particular shapes because they are

                    a. Organic                 b. Triple bonded                 c. Polar
                    d. Double bonded             e. Big enough to demand it

 

_______13. In comparison to a solution with a pH of 9, one thatís pH 11 would be

                    a. 4 times as acidic                             b. 4 times as basic
                    c. 100 times as acidic                         d. 100 times as basic
                                        e. Two years older

 

_______14. Evolutionary patterns that follow Lamarckís rules may occur with

                    a. Sexual reproduction                         b. Asexual reproduction
                    c. Epigenetic traits                               d. Certain types of isolation
                                        e. No intent to pay him for the idea

 

_______15. When liver cells build starches, the process used is

                    a. Dehydration synthesis                             b. Carbohydration
                    c. Polarity matching                 d. Hydrolysis                         e. Slimy

 

_______16. Enzymes are most commonly

                    a. Acids                     b. Bases                     c. Proteins
                    d. Carbohydrates             e. The last thing youíd consider

 

_______17. The periodic table has "bridges" below a certain point because in larger atoms

                    a. There are many more isotopes
                    b. The electron shells have sub-levels
                    c. The nucleus develops specific zones
                    d. Each type of particle in the atoms also get heavier
                    e. The urge to build stuff gets much greater

 

_______18. An amino acid is made up of

                    a. An amino group between a carboxyl and a variable carbon group
                    b. A carboxyl group between an amino and a variable carbon group
                    c. A variable carbon group between an amino group and a carboxyl group
                    d. Any of these combinations
                    e. Various itty-bitty pieces

 

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE
: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. For use of mitochondrial DNA in evolutionary studies -
Advantage
over nuclear
DNA
Assumption
made that might
NOT be true
2. What is the basic evolutionary / longterm survival strategy associated with asexual reproduction?

 

3. Define stereospecificity, including how it is usually applied.

 

4. Ignore the specifics - label with the general terms of a chemical reaction -
     CO2    +     H2O                 light         > C6H12O6 +      O2

--------------- --------------- -----------------   ---------------- -----------------

5. What are two different uses for lipids in organisms?

 
6. What are the two basic types of components of a typical lipid molecule?

 
7. Briefly explain why evaporation is a cooling process.


 

8. What are two important but different ways that proteins can work in cell chemistry?

 
9. What form are the atoms of Column 7 elements typically found in?

 

10. Define polymer.

 

11. The two "ends" of an antibody molecule have what functions?

 
12. Briefly explain what a hydration shell is.

 

13. What is a plasmid?

 

14. What are the two fundamentally different uses that plants have for starches?

 
15. What, briefly, is panspermia?

 

16. Describe (donít just name!) two different types of isolation that lead to speciation.
 

 

 

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note:
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1. For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.

 

 

 

 
2. Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.
                        X                  X      X       X

             X      X      X      x      X

             X                  X      X                  X       X

BONUS - Three Points - For which of the 4 could Sulfur substitute? ________________

3. Name or describe four things that happen in Nature that are critically important to evolution, according to four different provisions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
 

 

 

 

4. For two different types of molecular bonds -

NAME the bond type

DESCRIBE how such a bond is formed

5. For three different properties of water:

Property:

How produced on molecular level:


 

 

 
6. 40.08
          Ca
        
Calcium
                      11
                 Column 2
How
many
protons?
How
many
neutrons?
How
many
electrons?
(Radical form)
Typical
ion
form?
7. Put these in chronological order, according to the way current theories think they occurred - number from 1 (earliest) to 9 (latest).
          Molecular
_____ Evolution
            Primordial
_____ Soup Forms
          Eukaryotes
_____
          Life on
_____ Land
          Multicellular
_____ Life
          Protocells
_____ (First Membranes)
          Cambrian
_____ Explosion
          Aerobic
_____ Respiration
           Photosynthesis
_____
8. Give the four structural levels of proteins in one column and describe that level in the other column.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS.

Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Hardy and Weinberg developed their rules to show that something that people assumed was not mathematically true. What was the assumption? Three Points.

 

 

Current research indicates that the development of exons and introns could have been a critical step in the evolution of Life on Earth. Why might they be so important? Four Points.

 

What symbiotic relationship was probably necessary for the movement of plants onto the land? Three Points.

 

How could celery have negative calories? Three Points.

 

Why is alpha radiation less dangerous to people than gamma radiation? Three Points. (No references to The Hulk, please.)

 

What is it about fiber that makes it an effective stool softener? Four Points.

 

What types of materials are suspected of causing the molecular damage in our cells that makes us age? Three Points each.

 

Science fiction writers have thought that elements other than carbon might serve as the main atoms in alien living systems - based on what makes carbon work in our systems, where should they look for candidate elements? Four Points.

 

 

BI 171

McDarby

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