BI 171 - Second Exam - 2005

Links go to relevant passages in the online book

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  Minerals are most likely to be found in

                    a. Carbohydrates             b. Prosthetic groups             c. Lipids
                    d. Hydrogen bonds          e. Chunks of rock


_______ 2.  Isotopes are similar except for their

                    a. Electrons                 b. Overall charges                 c. Protons
                    d. Neutrons                                 e. Personalities


_______ 3.  Denaturing refers to the partial to complete unwinding of which type of molecule?

                    a. Protein                 b. Carbohydrate                 c. Lipid
                    d. Any of these                     e. The tightly-wound one


_______ 4.  A solution with a pH of 6 is _______ when compared to one with a pH of 8.

                    a. Neutral                 b. 25% less acidic                 c. 100 times more acidic
                    d. Twice as basic                         e. Much too confusing


_______ 5.  Which 2 functional groups are the same thing in different places?

                    a. Alcohols & aldehydes                         b. Alcohols & amines
                    c. Thiols & phosphates                           d. Aldehydes & ketones
                            e. Politicians, that’ll get me into trouble...


_______ 6.  The Hardy-Weinberg rule requires a large population because that

                    a. Reduces the role of chance       
                    b. Increases the number of good mutations
                    c. Means enough isotopes will destabilize
                    d. Means enough ions will destabilize
                    e. Makes a weinberg hardy enough


_______ 7.  Helicase should be a

                    a. Sugar                     b. Starch                     c. Protein                    d. Lipid
                                                        e. Sound made during a hiccup


_______ 8.  A hydration shell forms during the formation of

                    a. A solution                 b. A polymer                 c. Surface tension
                    d. All of these                         e. Blue M&Ms


_______ 9.  A receptor that will form a complex with only one particular molecule is an example of

                    a. Quaternary structure                                 b. Binary structure
                    c. Stereospecificity                                       d. Binding strength
                                     e. Molecular prejudice - a lawsuit will be filed


_______ 10.  Ethyl alcohol, compared to methyl alcohol, should have

                    a. One less carbon                                     b. One more carbon
                    c. One less alcohol                                     d. One more alcohol
                                                        e. Less "m"


_______ 11.  Which feature might evolve along a Lamarckian pattern?

                    a. Neck length                 b. Japanese slang            c. Color perception
                    d. Metabolic rate            e. Is it a bad sign when my mind is just constant static-?


_______ 12.  Water is the most dense

                    a. As ice                         b. When boiling                 c. At 4o C
                    d. At 50o C                                 e. When taking exams


_______ 13.  Digestion is mostly a process involving

                    a. Hydrolysis             b. Cellular respiration             c. Dehydration synthesis
                    d. Chaperonins                         e. Embarrassing sounds and odors


_______ 14.  On the Periodic Table, which radicals would be least reactive?

                    a. Column 8                     b. Column 1                     c. Column 4
                    d. Column 10                                 e. Column 3,463


_______ 15.  Panspermia is a hypothesis about

                    a. Genetic sharing             b. Sexual selection            c. Electron transfer
                    d. The origins of Life                e. The world’s ickiest fried entree


_______ 16.  Which is the best reason for molecular oxygen (O2) to contain a double bond?

                    a. There are 2 isotopes of oxygen                b. Oxygen contains 8 protons
                    c. Oxygen is in Column 6                            d. Oxygen can exist as 2 ions
                                                e. Double bonds were on sale


_______ 17.  Ionic bonds are rarely found at work in living systems because

                    a. There are few ions present
                    b. Of the water in the systems
                    c. Because electrons move to deionize the ions
                    d. They are rare in any natural system, living or not
                    e. They have been replaced by unions


_______ 18.  Which is probably the proper order for which each development appeared?

                    a. Prokaryote, eukaryote, multicelled, land organisms
                    b. Prokaryote, multicelled, land organisms, eukaryote
                    c. Prokaryote, land organisms, multicelled, eukaryote,
                    d. Eukaryote, multicelled, prokaryote, land organisms
                    e. Confidence, realization, panic, despair


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  What are two different molecules that are used for sequential comparisons between species?


2. Generally, hormones are made from which two classes of major biological molecules?


3. Plants produce carbohydrates for what two very different uses?


4.  Label the "pieces" with general terms (for any reaction) in the following -

                                                Light, Heat
           C4H10   +         Br2        -------------->            C4H9Br        +         H2

        __________________      ______________         ____________________

5.  Which came first, aerobic respiration or photosynthesis?


Why did it have to be first?
6.  What do the two functional domains of antibodies each do?


7.  What are two aspects of Life on Earth that would not have had to be developed right at the beginning, but would eventually have to universally present?


8.  What exactly does it mean if a molecule is unsaturated?



9.  What sorts of groups, under what circumstances, go through genetic drift?



10.  Briefly explain how a hydrogen bond works.



11. What happens during alternation of generations?



12.  Briefly explain what a metabolic pathway is.



13.  Briefly explain how the founder effect works.



14.  Define: Cambrian Explosion.



15.  What two elements, besides Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, are fairly common in biological molecules?


Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  For lipids -

Basic molecular components


2 Different Uses
in Living Things


2.  Describe (a simple one-word term will not be enough!) four different types of isolation that can factor into evolutionary separation of species.






3.  What are four different steps, in order, of the origins of Life on Earth that would have happened before recognizable prokaryote cells were present?






4.  18.998


Column 7

How many
(Radical form)

5.  Name and give a description of the four levels of protein structure.








6.  For sexual reproduction -
to asexual
7.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.  (Sorry, not able to completely recreate this question.)
                 X              X              X                           X              X

                          X                 X                                   X

                 X              X              X              X                       X


BONUS - Three Points - What specific type of molecule is this? ________________

Link to Answer Key


BONUS QUESTIONS. Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Alternation of generations has three major applications in living things. For Three Points each, give one example of a species or type of organism from each application.


Hardy and Weinberg developed their famous rule to explain how something specific should work. What was it? Three Points.


There is a marker in the fossil record for the rise of photosynthesis in the world. What is it? Three Points.


Why might the "Snowball" period have been the critical happening for the development of Life on Earth? Three Points


Land plants from the very beginning required a symbiosis with what organisms (Two Points) that could perform what function (Three Points)?


Which free radical is most commonly produced in our own chemistry? Three Points.


What do the numbers of the pH scale actually represent? Three Points.




At what point is a sugar molecule most likely to open? Three Points.




In any account of Life’s origins, what point about chirality needs to be addressed? Three Points.




BI 171



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