BI 171 - Second Exam - 2007

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.

Multiple Choice.
Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  Which seems to be the most important for establishing stability in an atomic nucleus?
                        a. Water             b. Protons             c. Electrons            d. Neutrons             e. Atomic meds


_______ 2.  Which are part of the molecular structure of a chromosome?
                        a. Histones & nucleosomes                 b. Secondary & tertiary                c. Lipids & phosphates
                        d. Starches & phosphates                            e. The chrome part and the some part


_______ 3.  Hydrolysis should be a common process in
                        a. Receptor bonding                         b. Digestion                         c. Starch production
                        d. Dissolving materials                                     e. Heads exploding


_______ 4.  On a molecular level, respiration is a process that always directly involves
                        a. Oxygen             b. DNA                 c. Energy transfer            d. Light             e. Really tiny lungs


_______ 5.  A part of a protein with a particular function:
                        a. Domain             b. Secondary structure             c. Chirality            d. Quaternary structure             e. Protypart


_______ 6.  An "R" group
                        a. Determines how nucleotides connect                          b. Makes one amino acid different from another
                        c. Is what makes DNA different from RNA                    d. Is the central connector in a lipid
                                                e. Makes a little growly noise when you say it

_______ 7.  Which would be found in an unsaturated hydrocarbon but not a saturated one?
                        a. Water             b. Oxygen             c. Sulfur            d. Double bond             e. Annoying personality


_______ 8.  A low chromosome number, compared to a high one, produces
                        a. Greater variety but more errors in cell production
                        b. More alleles but less expression
                        c. More expression but fewer alleles
                        d. Less variety but fewer errors in cell production
                        e. More purchases of loud machinery

 _______ 9.  Which are most commonly used for energy?
                        a. Proteins & nucleic acids                         b. Carbohydrates & proteins
                        c. Lipids & proteins                                   d. Carbohydrates & lipids
                                          e. A little jolt of electricity in the backside


_______ 10.  Panspermia is an explanation about
                        a. The origins of Life on Earth                         b. Reproductive processes
                        c. How atoms share electrons                          d. How receptors attach to ligands
                                e. Kitchen utensils in situations I don't want to think about


_______ 11.  Which gets most of its variety of functions from conformation?
                        a. Carbohydrates             b. Lipids             c. Proteins            d. Nucleic acids             e. Pizza rolls


_______ 12.  In a gene, the code ratio of nucleotide to amino acid in the coded protein is
                        a. 3 nucleotides to 1 amino acid                         b. 3 amino acids to 1 nucleotide
                        c. 3 alleles to 1 protein                                      d. 3 proteins to 1 allele
                                        e. Something only the government should know


_______ 13.  Secondary protein structure is produced mostly by
                        a. Hydrogen bonds                         b. Prosthetic groups                         c. Function
                        d. Bond angles                                                     e. Not being quite the best


_______ 14.  Water is most dense at what Celsius temperature?
                        a. 0o                         b. 4o                         c. 100o                         d. -32o                        e. 4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42


_______ 15.  The very first "living" systems of molecules had to
                        a. Be able to evolve                 b. Use DNA coding            c. Use a protein-based chemistry
                        d. Have cells                                                e. Be very very cute little guys


_______ 16.  Which statement is true?
                        a. Genes make up DNA and are made up of chromosomes
                        b. Chromosomes are made of DNA and carry genes
                        c. DNA is made up of genes and chromosomes
                        d. Genes carry chromosomes and make up DNA
                        e. So now we have to understand English-?


_______ 17.  A solution of pH 2, compared to a solution of pH4, should be
                        a. Twice as acidic             b. Twice as basic            c. 100 times as acidic             d. 100 times as basic
                                                                        e. Um, another solution-?


_______ 18.  Hormones are commonly
                        a. Carbohydrates and lipids                                   b. Lipids and proteins
                        c. Proteins and nucleic acids                                 d. Lipids and nucleic acids
                                                                e. Very distracting

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.


1. What are two reasons why RNAs are considered the likeliest candidate for the first "living" molecules?



2.  What is the function of chaperonins?



3.  Which two bond types are most important to holding biological molecules together?



4.  Ignore the specifics - label with the general terms applied to any chemical reaction -

                     CO2          +        H2O                      light    >                  C6H12O6       +           O2

             ---------------           ---------------           -----------------            ----------------             -----------------
5.  What particular secondary environmental change is probably the most common leading into extinction events?




6.  Why does polarity exist in some molecules? Explain, don't define!



7.  What are two features of prokaryote chromosomes that's different from eukaryotes?



8.  The first scientific hypotheses about the origins of Life thought photosynthesis had to be the first step. Why?


What concept contradicted that assumption?



9.  What are the two main circumstances where carriers or transporters are needed?



10.  What is a hydration shell?



11.  What sort of cellular epigenetic factor might exist in a human?



12.  Name two different types of common organic molecules that are polymers.



13.  What are two non-"HONC" elements commonly found in biological molecules?



14.  What is it about an atomic radical that makes it particularly reactive?



15. What are the two typical molecular components of a lipid molecule?




Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.


Column 1

1a.  How
1b.  How
1c.  How
(Radical form)
1d.  Typical
2.  For three different types of isolation, give the type and briefly describe how it works









3.  Briefly describe three different types of functions
found in proteins that depend upon




4. Put these in chronological order, according to the way current theories think they occurred - number from 1 (earliest) to 9 (latest).
_____ Explosion
_____ Respiration
_____ Evolution
_____ Soup
              Life on
_____ Land
_____ Life
_____ (First Membranes)
5.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.

These were boxes connected with bond lines - the symbols needed to be put into the boxes.


BONUS - Three Points - What specific type of molecule is this? ________________

6.  For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.








7.  Given here is one side (strand) of DNA. Starting with this strand, show:

Starting               ____________________________________________________________________
G  G  T  A  A  T  G  C  C  T  A  T  C  T  C  A  A  T  T  G  C

Other DNA          ____ _______________________________________________________

Messenger RNA   ____________________________________________________________
 from 1st strand

How many codons are on the starting strand? ___________

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

What is the connection between epigenetic factors and Lamarck? Three Points.

What concept in evolutionary theory has at least partly replaced competition as a major contributor to evolution? Three Points.

What fossil discovery led to the development of the "snowball Earth" hypothesis? Three Points.

What organisms were the "dominant" form during the largest extinction event? Three Points.

Briefly explain why the Periodic Table has "bridges" in it. Three Points.

Why exactly can the pH of the environment have a strong effect on biological molecules?  Three Points.

Why do plants produce less-stable starches? Three Points.

What is an antigen? Three Points.

What sorts of functions or origins have been found for non-coding DNA? Three Points each.

How does giving antibiotics to people that don't need them lead to antibiotic-resistant strains of disease bacteria? Four Points.




BI 171

Michael McDarby


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