BI 171 - Second Exam - 2008


Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.   Which are polymers?
                    a. Sugar and starch                     b. Sugar and lipid                     c. Lipid and protein
                    d. Protein and starch                                         e. Polly what-nows-?

_______ 2.   Crossing the gap between nerve cells requires which proteins?
                    a. Enzymes and antibodies                     b. Neurotransmitters and receptors                    c. Antibodies and antigens
                    d. Antigens and receptors                                                            e. Logs and frogs

_______ 3.   The instability of radicals comes from what part of the atoms?
                    a. Protons                     b. Neutrons                     c. Inner electrons                    d. Outer electrons                     e. Their family situations

_______ 4.   An R group is found in
                    a. Lipid molecules                     b. Sugar molecules                     c. Amino acids                    d. RNA                     e. Pirate molecules

_______ 5.   Activators, enhancers, and promoters are functional parts of
                    a. Enzyme pathways                     b. Gene transcription                     c. Gene translation                     d. Evolutionary change
                                                                                e. A Broadway touring company

_______ 6.   At a pH of 7,
                    a. H+ ions are about equal to OH- ions                                        b. H+ ions outnumber OH- ions
                    c. OH- ions outnumber H+ ions                                                  d. There are no ions
                                                e. Is there any way I can request a different question...?

_______ 7.   Which is true?
                    a. Genes contain chromosomes which contain DNA                    b. DNA contain genes which contain chromosomes
                    c. Chromosomes contain genes which contain DNA                    d. Genes contain DNA which contains chromosomes
                                                        e. I knew I should have taken that basket-weaving class

_______ 8.   Panspermia is a concept that applies to the
                    a. Reproduction of plants                     b. Reproduction of animals                    c. Expression of DNA
                    d. Beginnings of Life on Earth                                        e. Worst restaurant idea ever conceived

_______ 9.   What would an unsaturated molecule have that a saturated one won't have?
                    a. Double bond                     b. Hydrogen bond                     c. Water                    d. Ions
                                                 e. Saturation, right-? Or, not saturation...

_______ 10.   Digestion of food will always involve
                    a. Acid-base reactions                     b. Hydrolysis                    c. ATP input                     d. Dehydration synthesis
                                                            e. Production of embarrassing gasses

_______ 11.   Which tends to come apart in water?
                    a. Ionic bonds                     b. Hydrogen Bonds                    c. Hydrophobic bonds                     d. Acidic bonds
                                                                    e. Someone who has just had their hair done

_______ 12.   Histones are associated with
                    a. Protein synthesis                     b. Starch breakdown                    c. Enzyme function                     d. Chromosome structure
                                                            e. A big pile of rocks (or rocks with a drug problem)

_______ 13.   Covalent bonds involve
                    a. Proton interactions                     b. Electron sharing                    c. Whole charge attractions
                    d. Partial charge attractions                                        e. Stuff I didn't learn

_______ 14.   Which would definitely be a protein?
                    a. Telomerase                     b. Glycogen                     c. Testosterone                    d. Galactose                     e. The one with the protein license

_______ 15.   The part of a protein that does some special function:
                    a. Functional group                     b. Domain                     c. Zone                    d. Locale                     e. Specialty spot

_______ 16.   Two molecules with different conformations would have
                    a. The same number of carbons, but differences in numbers of other atoms
                    b. The same atoms, and all bound to the same atoms, different 3 dimensionally
                    c. The same atoms, but bound to different atoms
                    d. Different distributions of charges
                    e. Probably have been raised Catholic-?

_______ 17.   Telomeres
                    a. Attach to spindle fibers                    b. Are where a gene inventory can be found
                    c. Are made of RNA                           d. Cap the ends of chromosomes
                                        e. Are very nice little biological terms

_______ 18.   Transfer RNA
                    a. Carries amino acids                    b. Moves from the nucleus to the ribosomes                    c. Moves from ribosomes to the nucleus
                    d. Connects chromosomes together                                        e. Helps you move credits to another college


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.   What are the two distinct types of temporal isolation?


2.   The three simplest hydrocarbons, according to their numbers of Carbons:
1 2 3
3.   What single effect (other than extinction itself) has probably occurred in every major mass extinction event?


4.   What is a hydration shell?


5.   Give two pairs of differences between







6.   What two elements, beside Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen, are common in biological molecules?


7.   What is a bottleneck effect?


8.   What would the stereospecificity of an enzyme determine?


9.   Plants produce starches for different reasons. Connect each reason to the stability of the bonds.
10.  Give two organic functional groups by name, and then show their molecular arrangement.


11.   Exactly what sort of bad thing would happen without chaperonins?


12.   What are two features the first "living" molecular systems had to have?


13.  What are two features that would not have been there early, but which had to appear in "living systems" for them to be Life as we know it?


14.   Ignore the specifics (don't name the molecules) - label with the general terms applied to any chemical reaction -

CO          +          H2O                  light       >           C6H12O6         +        O2

---------------               ---------------               -----------------                  ----------------             -----------------

15.  Explain how genetic redundancy works in transcription.


Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.   Name and give a description of the four levels of protein structure.








2.   Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.





3,   Name or describe four things that happen in Nature that are critically important to evolution, according to four different provisions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.







Column 2

How many
How many
How many
electrons?(Radical form)
ion form?
5. Put these in chronological order, according to the way current theories think they occurred - number from 1 (earliest) to 9 (latest).
_____    Evolution
             Life on
_____    Land
_____    Explosion
_____    Soup Forms
_____    Life
_____    Respiration
_____    (First Membranes)
6. For three different properties of water:
Property: How produced on molecular level:






7.   For lipids - Basic molecular components



2 Different Uses in Living Things




8.   Given here is one side (strand) of DNA. Starting with this strand, and using the table attached to the back of the exam, show:

Strand T A C A G C C C C G C A T T G C T A G G G A T T

Messenger RNA from 1st strand

Amino Acid Sequence

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

What unusual sort of isolation is often found in beetles? Three Points.

How are epigenetic factors Lamarckian? Three Points.

In what way is the old "photosynthesis problem" for Life origins uniformitarian? Three Points.

What is the likely evolutionary connection between the Snowball period and the Cambrian Explosion? Three Points.

Radioactive elements often turn into other elements. How do they do this? Three Points.

Carbon dating is pretty useless for things more than 60,000 years old. Why, exactly? Three Points.

When do local lakes stop "turning over"? Three Points.

What is it about our amino acids is really hard to explain? Three Points.

What two major medical research areas are specifically studying telomeres? Two Points Each.


How does an antibiotic treatment today give a person an antibiotic-resistant infection months from now? Four Points.

Why is prokaryote evolution so difficult to track? Three Points.




BI 171

Michael McDarby


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