BI 171 - Second Exam - 2010

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.

Multiple Choice.
Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  Which would be necessary to digest a protein?

                    a. Dehydration synthesis             b. Cohesion             c. Unsaturation            d. Hydrolysis             e. The protein must sign the papers first

_______ 2.  A basic concept of panspermia is that

                    a. Sexual reproduction did not originally have genders                    b. RNA was the first "living" molecular system
                    c. Earth life originated somewhere other than Earth                       d. Photosynthesis is not the only process to support an ecosystem
                                                            e. They'll cook anything on Kitchen Nightmares


_______ 3.  A gene sequence (codon) relates to an amino acid sequence by what ratio?

                    a. Two to one             b. Three to one             c. One to one            d. Four to one             e. They're no relation

_______ 4.  Which are the same group in different positions?

                    a. Carboxyl and thiol             b. Acetyl and amine             c. Alcohol and methyl             d. Aldehyde and ketone
                                                    e. Insert something political and vaguely dirty here

_______ 5.  An atom that is chemically unstable has an issue with its

                    a. Outer electrons             b. Protons             c. Neutrons            d. Polarity             e. Meds

_______ 6.  A pathway requires multiple genes because it should always

                    a. Produce multiple proteins             b. Move through multiple cells            c. Require multiple enzymes             d. All of these
                                                                                        e. Use a multiplication table

_______ 7.  Which would be ethane?

                    a. C
2H6                     b. C3H8                     c. CH4                     d. C4H14                    e. Time for the imaginary dartboard...


_______ 8. Hormones could be

                    a. Lipids or proteins                 b. Proteins or carbohydrates                c. Lipids or DNA codes                 d. Proteins or DNA codes
                                                                                e. The cause of most of my problems


_______ 9.  Local ponds "turn over" due to

                    a. Oxygen reactions in the water                    b. Carbon dioxide reactions in the water                    c. Water density changes
                    d. Effects of plants on the water                                        e. The pillow needs to be flipped


_______ 10.  Which would be one to a few ring molecules with an oxygen "clasp"?

                    a. Amino acids                     b. Lipids                     c. Starches                    d. Sugars                     e. Very weird jewelry


_______ 11.  Molecules in cells rarely have

                    a. Hydrogen bonds             b. Covalent bonds             c. Ionic bonds            d. Multiple bonds             e. Government bonds


_______ 12.  Alcohol dehydrogenase must be a

                    a. Type of RNA                     b. Protein                     c. Carbohydrate                    d. Lipid                     e. Downer at parties

_______ 13.  The function of a protein that has just a single amino acid string is directly connected to its

                    a. Primary structure                     b. Secondary structure                     c. Tertiary structure                     d. Quaternary structure
                                                                                e. College degree (see? they are important!)


_______ 14.  Compared to a solution of pH 11, one that's a pH of 13 is

                    a. 2/11ths more basic             b. 2/13ths more basic            c. 100 times more basic             d. 10 times more basic
                                                    e. Different in some unknowable way (well, I don't know it!)


_______ 15.  Which has a similar role in biological molecules to oxygen?

                    a. Phosphorus                     b. Sulfur                     c. Sodium                    d. Chlorine                     e. What, does oxygen call in sick-?


_______  16.  Genetic drift is most obvious in populations

                    a. That begin to resemble each other                    b. That are on the verge of extinction                    c. In separate, virtually identical ecosystems
                    d. That are carrying many recessive alleles                                        e. Whose motors have burned out


_______ 17.  Actin and myosin would break down to

                    a. Nucleotides                     b. Sugars                     c. Amino acids                    d. Fatty acids                     e. The right sad music


_______ 18.  Which is made from a complete gene sequence?

                    a. Lipid                     b. Messenger RNA                     c. Starch                    d. Transfer RNA                     e. Next generation Facebook profile


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Ignore the specifics (don't name the actual molecules) - label with the general terms applied to any chemical reaction -
               C6H12O6          +           O2                    enzymes >                   CO2            +         H2O

             ---------------            ---------------          -----------------          ----------------            ---------------
2.  Plants produce 2 categories of starches, used different ways - give each use.
3.  What early "step" probably happened in every mass extinction event?



4.  What makes a molecule polar?



5.  If most of our DNA is non-coding, why is it there? Give two different ways to explain non-coding bits.


6.  Briefly explain why memetics is largely Lamarkian in pattern.



7.  Photosynthesis probably arose as a "merger" of what pre-existing abilities?


8.  What are the three parts connected to the central carbon of an amino acid?


9.  What are the two main structural components of a chromosome?


10.  What two ecosystem types were the likely "staging areas" for the movement of life from water to land?


11.  For each category, give an example (NOT a definition!!) of a material that fits it -




12.  What two major organic molecule types must be polymers?


13.  Hardy-Weinberg brought attention to "new" aspects important to evolution - things that were not selection types or mutation. What were two?


14.  What are two ways that a DNA molecule is different from an RNA molecule?


15.  Why might the Snowball Period have been absolutely critical to the development of complex multicellular life?




Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  For three different types of isolation, give the type and briefly describe how it works.






2.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.

*Drawing not reproducible, but like the one done in class*

3.  For lipids -

Basic molecular components



2 Different Uses in Living Things



4.  Define these terms having to do with proteins.


Prosthetic Groups -



Domain -



Denaturation -



5.  For three different properties of water -
Property How it works on a molecular level






6.  Briefly describe (not just name the category!) three different types of functions found in proteins that depend upon stereospecificity.  









Column 2

How many
How many
How many
electrons?(Radical form)
ion form?
8. Put these in chronological order, according to the way current theories think they occurred - number from 1 (earliest) to 9 (latest).
_____    Respiration
_____    Evolution
_____    (First Membranes)
_____    Explosion
             Life on
_____    Land
_____    Life
_____    Soup Forms

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

What animal populations seem to have gone through a bottleneck effect long ago? Two Points Each.

What is Nemesis? Three Points.

Why are there only 2 elements on the first row of the Periodic Table? Three Points.

How does radioactivity change what element something is? Three Points.

What is the most common free radical in our cells? Three Points.

Why is such a large fraction of the air we breathe nitrogen? Three Points.

Why is it "useful" for a toxin to be a lipid-based molecule? Three Points.

What two different behaviors are set off by ant alarmones? Two Points Each.

What, technically, does a catalyst do to speed up a reaction? Three Points.

Chaperonins are related to what other category of proteins? Three Points.

What particular type of molecule is proving to have many different uses, according to the latest research? Three Points.




BI 171

Michael McDarby


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