BI 171  - Second Exam  - 2011


Multiple Choice. 

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.



_______ 1.    Chaperonins are involved in

                        a.  Electron transfer                             b.  Movement through membranes

                        c.  Protein folding                              d.  Conducting heat

                                        e.  Supervising the world’s tiniest adolescents



_______ 2.   Atoms can be radioactive if they have the “wrong” number of

                        a.  Neutrons                 b.   Electrons               c.  Radions

                        d.  Protons                               e.   Facebook friends



_______ 3.   Evo-devo looks mostly at evolutionary changes driven by

                        a.  Point mutations                     b.  Gene shifts                      c.  Environment

                        d.  Gene expression                    e.  80s music groups



_______ 4.   Which bonds happen between areas that are partially charged?

                        a.   Ionic                      b.   Covalent                            c.    Hydrogen

                        d.   Segmented                                    e.  Crappy



_______5.   Which is a polymer?

                        a.  Sugar                         b.  Starch                  c.  Amino acid

                        d.  Lipid                                                e.  Turtle Wax?



_______6.   A molecule is particularly organic if it

                        a.  Is only found in living things

                        b.  Has carbon in it

                        c.  Has carbon and hydrogen in it

                        d.  Has carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in it

                        e.  Is grown in animal droppings



_______7.   During digestion, organic polymers are broken down into components

                                                using what chemical reaction?

                        a.  Dehydration synthesis                                b.  Hydrolysis

                        c.  Respiration                                                 d.  Refraction

                                                e.  Choppy-hacky-cutty-ation




_______8.   An unsaturated molecule would have

                        a.  All single bonds                                         b.  All multiple bonds

            c.  At least one multiple bond             d.  All of these

                                    e.  No need for a towel




_______9.    Minerals are often integrated into functional proteins as

                        a.  Complexes                    b.  Pathways                      c.  Peptides

                        d.  Prosthetic groups               e.  Quantum buddies




_______10.  The very first food chains would have started with

                        a.  Photosynthesis                               b.  Chemosynthesis

                        c.  Aerobic respiration                         d.  Anaerobic respiration

                                                e.  Just burgers and fries




_______11.  The snowball period probably had its greatest impact on evolution due to

                        a.  Oxygen release                                           b.  Oxygen reduction

                        c.  Reduction of living spaces                         d.  Drop in temperature

                                                e.  How much fun it was




_______12.  For evolutionary comparisons, the preferred molecule is

                        a.  Nuclear DNA                                 b.  Mitochondrial DNA

                        c.  Membrane lipids                             d.  Structural proteins

                                    e. Cheap and easy to get along with




_______13.  The steroid hormone estrogen can be produced by cells with a lot

                                    of material of the same general type.  What type of cells?

                        a.   Muscle                   b.  Bone                       c.  Cartilage

                        d.   Fat                      e.  Huh?  What?  Huh?




_______14.   The first “living” molecular complexes are thought to have been

                        a.  Carbohydrates                    b.  RNA                      c.  Proteins

                        d.  Cells                                               e.  Very smelly




_______15.   The chirality of an amino acid is associated with

                        a.  What end the amino group is on

                        b.  Where it is in a protein sequence

                        c.   What sort of R group there is

                        d.   How the main bonds are twisted

                        e.  Whether it was traumatized as a little amino acid





_______16.  The Hardy-Weinberg Rule is about

                        a.  Gene pools over time                                 b.  How different groups evolve

                        c.  Different reproductive strategies               d.  Mutation types

                                    e.  Two guys and their love of rules





_______17.  What is it about water that produces surface tension?

                        a.  Evaporation                                    b.  Adhesion

                        c.  Freezing                                          d.  Cohesion

                        e.  When the surface is really attracted to someone…





_______18.  Confirmation that DNA alone could be used to create whole microbes came

                                    from work with

                        a.  Primordial soup                  b.  Viruses                   c.  Plasmids

                        d.  Mitochondria                     e.  Fast-food restaurants



Short Answer.    Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.

1.   What are the two types of pieces of a lipid molecule?


2.   Give an example of a pH reading that is -






3.   Why is it useful to have many genomes available to researchers?



4.   The most common local repeating patterns in protein molecules -


5.   Show the pairing nucleotides from DNA (initials are okay)



6.   What does each end of an antibody molecule do?


7.   Two different types of proteins likely to show a lot of stereospecificity -


8.   What are the two different major reasons why plants produce carbohydrates?


9.  What happens, exactly, when a protein denatures?



10.  Briefly describe the founder effect.



11.   Label the following chemical reaction with the general terms for each part –


                 A           +             B                                   x           >                   C


     __________              ___________            ______________             _____________

12.  Briefly explain why carbon dating is only useful on things newer than 60000 years old.



13.  Give names –






14.  Two different biological situations where alternation of generations has evolved-


15.  What came to be known as “the plant problem”?



16.  The endosymbiosis theory is about how eukaryote cells came to do what two processes?



17.  What is the basic formula of a simple sugar?



18.  What is the general function of a pheromone?






Long Answer.  


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.

1.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or  Oxygen.




2.   All for the most common isotope –


How many





# 11

Column 1

How many



ion form?


ion form?

How many

electrons? (Radical form)

3.   Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.




4.   For four functional organic molecule groups, give the name, then show the arrangement of atoms in enough detail to demonstrate completely how each group works.




5.   Briefly describe (don’t just name) three different types of reproductive isolation.


6.   Put these in chronological order, according to the way current theories think they occurred - number from 1 (earliest) to 9 (latest).


_____      Explosion


_____        Soup Forms

            Life on

_____       Land


_____   (First Membranes)


_____       Respiration






_____         Life


_____      Evolution

7.   What are three different causes of mass extinction events?




8.   What are three different major challenges for water organisms moving onto the land?







Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


Who was Rosalind Franklin?  Three Points.



What sort of inheritance clearly follows Lamarkian patterns?  Three Points.



What was first called “epigenetic” is now called by what term?   Three Points.



Why are there only 2 elements on the first row of the Periodic Table?  Three Points.



What free radical is most likely damaging your cells right now?  Three Points.



Why is there so much nitrogen in the atmosphere?  Three Points.

Why do our local lakes “turn over” late in the year?   Three Points.



The most common thermal insulation in nature uses what material as the heat barrier?  Three Points.




What non-“Big 4” element is used as a bridge atom to hold proteins together?   Three Points.





What turned out to be the same sort of molecule as heat-shock proteins?  Three Points.






BI 171

Michael McDarby


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