BIO 171  - Second Exam  - 2013
Links go to pertinent passages of book


Multiple Choice.


            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

                        Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.



_______ 1.    Mitochondrial DNA is often used in research because it

                        a. Has a prokaryote structure           b.  Is passed down only maternal lineages

                        c. Uses a different RNA                  d. Does not recombine each generation

                                        e.  Has never tried to unionize



_______ 2.   A great many unrelated species have a wormlike form, great for

                        burrowing.  This is an example of

                        a.  Divergent evolution                        b.  Convergent evolution

                        c.  De-evolution                                  d.  Form matching

e.  The general ickiness of Nature



_______ 3.   Which is true of the null hypothesis?

                        a.  It is always being tested

                        b.  It could be true in every case

                        c.  If results favor it, the test can be redone

                        d.  All of these

                        e.  It’s just as dull as it is null



_______ 4.    If this word is used, someone is criticizing a taxonomic scheme:

                        a.  Polyphyletic                                   b.  Paraphyletic

                        c.  Quasiphyletic                                 d.  Monophyletic

                                    e.  I got yer phyletic phyletic right here…!



_______ 5.    Much of the storage and processing of RNA happens in

                        a.  Special cells                           b.   Nuclear envelope

                        c.  Nucleolus                             d.  Ribosome

                        e.  Room in the back where nobody’s allowed 



_______ 6.    In experiments, an artifact is

                        a.  The established way of doing a procedure

                        b.  How someone else would interpret your results

                        c.  What is already known about the variable

                        d.  A result produced by some part of the experimental process

                        e.  Something we can say about a painting to look smart



_______ 7.    If a cell goes through apoptosis, it will

                        a.  Start to move                      b.  Share genes                        c.  Die

                        d.  Divide                                e.  Change its cell phone carrier



_______ 8.   The phrase ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is about

                        a.  Embryos and evolution               b.  Measuring the age of fossils

                        c.  How science spreads ideas         d.  How modern species relate to fossil species

e.  About words nobody uses (or understands) anymore



_______ 9.   Assuming you can measure past processes by using present rates is

                        a.  Historicism                                     b.  Conservatism

                        c.  Rate-leveling                                  d.  Uniformitarianism

            e.  Just laziness at its worst



_______ 10.   An experiment should be repeated many times or use many subjects

                        a.  To reduce the impact of chance

                        b.  To make it completely reproducible

                        c.  To produce qualitative data

                        d.  All of these

                        e.  So the researchers don’t get lonely



_______ 11.   A cell that produces a protein-based secretion would have to have

                        a.  A nucleus               b.  Ribosomes              c.  Golgi bodies

                        d.  All of these                                    e. Some gross-sounding name



_______ 12.   One of Darwin’s influences was Malthus’ essay on the effects of

                        a.  Mutations                                                               b.  Overpopulation

                        c.  Hoe the environment changes over time                    d.  Humans on Nature

                        e.  Why the British Empire was the very bestest Empire of them all




_______ 13.  Postmodernism can be used to address

                        a.   Experimenter bias                          b.  The best technology to use

                        c.   Virus features                                d.  Atomic particles

                                                e.   Is a post really that modern?



_______ 14.  You are going to get the clearest focus from the microscope with the

                        a.  Highest magnification                      b.  Strongest imaging beam

     c.  Thickest lenses                               d.  Best resolution

e.   Best rating from Consumers Reports



_______ 15.  What does MTOC stand for?

                        a.  Molecular transfer orientation complex

                        b.  Microtubule-organizing center

                        c.  Malthusian-themed ontogeny creation

                        d.  Monotaxonomic original convergency

                        e.  It sounds like it should be running subways somewhere



_______ 16.  The “best” way to decide that two groups are different species is if they

     a.  Can not produce offspring together

     b.  Only produce sterile offspring

                        c.  Will not breed together in their natural environment

     d.  All of these are considered equally good ways

     e.  Never are friended with the other group



_______ 17.  A double-blind trial requires hiding of information from which

                                    group in particular for the “double” label?

                       a.  Manufacturers of the materials

    b.  Patients taking the materials

    c.  Researchers that are running the tests

    d.  Statisticians that are analyzing the data from the tests

    e.  Whoever’s getting both eyes poked out



_______ 18.  With dissecting microscopes, you see the surface of the specimen.

                                 What type of microscope are the dissecting ‘scopes?

                        a.  Reflective               b.  Refractive                                      c.  Mirror

                        d.  Scanning                            e.  Kind of alarming




Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.    Briefly explain the endosymbiosis theory.




2.   Define sexual selection.




3.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Domain, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Subclass, Superorder. (No species on the list)


4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9
4.  Briefly explain why, it is thought, cells tend to have a maximum size.




5.   Lamarck presented ideas that were widely-accepted but eventually shown not to be true.  What were two of those ideas?






6.   Microscope specimens are often sectioned and stained.

They are


because -

They are


because –

7.   What are the main two imaging beam types for microscopes?






8.  Living things may do first-level energy transformations using energy from the environment.  What are the two major processes that do this?






9.   What are two different types of vesicles?






10.  Explain -  what is the placebo effect?



11.  Family trees can be drawn using either of the classification approaches, but what sort of labels would be at the branching points for -






12.  Briefly explain the bases for -






13.  Briefly explain why peer review is such an important part of modern science.




14.  What is the basic approach of reductionism?




15.  Put these in order so that each later level contains the earlier ones:  Community, Ecosystems, Individuals, Populations.



16.  What are two different types of vacuoles?






17.  The fossil record for many groups is “spotty,” with missing steps.  Briefly explain why.






Long Answer.  


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.


1.   Answer the following about classic Scientific Method:

Two features a good

hypothesis should have


Role served by the

experimental variable

Purpose of the control



2.   Name four of the Six "Basic" Domains / Kingdoms, and for each list enough traits to make it clearly different from the other five.







3.   Answer for asexual reproduction:




Compared to Sexual


To Overcome Disadvantage


4.   When biologists are trying to decide whether viruses are truly alive, these are important:

Two traits viruses have IN COMMON with all living things.




Two traits all living things should have that all viruses do not.



5.   Give the steps that, according to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, should happen between the steps given. 

The environment around a population changes 






The new population is different enough to be considered a new species


6.   Give two different rules that apply to each in binomial nomenclature:











7.   Give four rules from the classic Cell Theory.










8.   For the two basic types of cells, give the type and two sets of differences between them -








Link to Answer Key



Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


Why are most asexual reproducers very small?  Three Points.



What group is classified using the Kingdom-type system, but isn=t actually included in the system?  Three Points.




What is the extra Ablind@ in a triple-blind test?  Three Points.



How is microscope resolution determined?  Three Points.



Leeuwenhoek is considered a critical figure in the history of microscopes, but he didn’t work on microscopes.  What did he work on?  Three Points.



One type of microscope must have  vacuum inside it.  Why?  Three Points.



Stains are good for making things visible, but they may also do what other useful thing?  Three Points.




Bacteria do something that isn’t quite sexual reproduction, but it’s somewhat similar.  What is it?  Three Points.





The beginning of Darwin’s most famous book isn’t about evolution – what’s it about?  Three Points.





What other types of “plasts” are there?  Two Points Each.





BIO 171

Michael McDarby


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