BIO 171  - Second Exam  - 2014

Links go to pertinent passages of book


Multiple Choice. 


            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

            Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

1.   In an experiment, what term goes with the thing actually being tested?

                        a.  Control                  b.  Specimen                c.  Variable

                        d.  Result                                 e.  Test thingy



_______ 2.   One of the first ideas associated with fossils was strongly resisted by
                                    the Church. What was that idea?

                        a.  Evolution                            b.  Age of the Earth
                        c.  Extinction                           d.  Spontaneous generation

            e.  That fossils were running things



_______ 3.    Which involves understanding acetylation changes in DNA?

                        a.  Derived features                                         b.  Epigenetics

                        c.  Alternative respiration pathways                   d.  Niche specializations

                           e.  That’s why toothpaste won’t go back into the tube



_______ 4.   Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is a concept developed from studying

                        a.  Fossils                     b.  Island ecosystems              c.  Embryos    

                        d.  Natural reproductive behavior                   e.  A dictionary



_______ 5.    Academic peer review happens most often during

                        a.  Planning                                            b.  Experimentation

                        c.  Conferences                                      d.  Publication 

                                    e.  Frantic obsessive Facebooking



_______ 6.   The null hypothesis

                        a.  Requires no variable

                        b.  Requires a separate test

                        c.  Would not be associated with observations

                        d.  Is always a possibility

                        e.  Is really a very dull hypothesis



_______ 7.   Something in the way you set up an experiment changes your results.

            The changed results, which are not from what you’re testing:

     a.  Artifact                                               b.  Contrafaction
                        c.  Selection bias                                 d.  Divergence

            e.  Your basic science screw-up




_______ 8.    Many specimens or test runs in an experiment

                        a.   Eliminates bias                             b.  Reduces the influence of chance

                        c.   Are required for publication         d.  Do all of these

                        e.  Use up all of the money, preserving the budget for next time




_______ 9.    Which is a major producer of ATP molecules?

                        a.   Electron transport chain                      b.  Kreb Cycle

                        c.   Calvin Cycle                                        d.  Glycolysis

                                    e.   The ATP-Industrial Conspiracy




_______ 10.    Which term is basically a criticism?

                        a.  Derived                              b.  Theory                    c.  Polyphyletic

                        d.  Colonial                             e.  #Youidiot




_______ 11.   The supposed maximum number of individuals in a given niche:

                        a.  Threshold population                     b.  Carrying capacity

                        c.  Population threshold                      d.  Overload assessment

                                                e.  Megacrapload




_______ 12.   C4 photosynthesis is mostly found under what conditions?

                        a.  Wet tropical                                    b.   Dry arctic

                        c.  Hot desert                                      d.   Under water

                        e.  Isn’t that the explosives they use in spy movies?




_______ 13.   Neuroscientists try to figure out how different processes are carried out in the
                                    brain.  Eventually they expect to functionally define human consciousness.

                                    This approach is known as

                        a.  Inclusion                             b.  Collectivism                       c.  Broad-variable

                        d.  Reductionism                                 e.  Getting grants forever



_______ 14.   Postmodernism is used in science

                        a.  To include new technology                        b.  To avoid bias

                        c.  To increase the spread of ideas                  d.  All of these

                                                e.  What’s so modern about a post?


_______ 15.  In ecosystems, what process is a first-level Energy transformation?

                        a.  Digestion                                        b.  Absorption

                        c.  Respiration                                     d.  Photosynthesis

                            e.  Is first-level the bottom step or the top step?



_______ 16.   A plasmid is

                        a.   A packet of light energy

                        b.   A photosynthetic chamber in a plant cell

                        c.   A virus casing

                        d.  A supplement to a prokaryote’s DNA

                        e.  A weird blob in your salad dressing



_______ 17.   Looking at all life on Earth,

                        a.  Producers have more biomass but fewer species than consumers

                        b.  Producers have more biomass and more species than consumers

                        c.  Producers have less biomass and fewer species than consumers

                        d.  All of the above

                        e.  You need a really big fenced-in area



_______ 18.   Wallace was most important as

                        a.  A public defender of Darwin

                        b.  Darwin’s collaborator

                        c.  An influence on young Darwin

                        d.  The driving force of publication for Darwin

                        e.   That guy that did that thing that some people think is important


Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.

1.   What happens in any cellular system during respiration?





2.   What are two major different contributions that human colon symbionts make to help their hosts?


3.   Explain the term emergent properties.




4.   In classification “family trees,” the points of branching connect to which detail in these approaches -


5.   Give two different compounds used as terminal electron acceptors in respiration pathways.

6.   What are the two major features a proper hypothesis should have?

7.   Fill in the next two ecosystem levels in order:

8.    Briefly explain why a uniformitarian approach is necessary.




9.    Give an example of an unoccupied niche.





10.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Suborder, Superfamily.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9


11.  What are two different features of quantitative data that make it scientifically preferable to qualitative data?


12.  What are two different nitrogenous wastes released by animals?

13.  Give two concepts often connected to Lamarck that have been shown to not be how things usually work.


14.   What (and where) are plasmids? (Oops - asked twice!)


15.  What are the key features that makes a species colonial?


16.  In disagreements about classification, what are scientists -






    TO DO?

17.   What is sexual selection?








Long Answer.  


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.

1.   Give the steps that, according to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, should happen between the steps given. 
The environment around a population changes

The new population is different enough to be considered a new species.
2.   Briefly explain how each type of molecule is used for respiration energy. Lipids -

Proteins -

Starches -

3.   Answer for sexual reproduction:




Compared to Asexual


Compared to Asexual

4.   Describe how the “blinding” works for each level-









5.   Give four basic steps of glycolysis.  They don=t have to be  in-a-row consecutive, but they do need to be in proper order. 


6.   Give two different rules that apply specifically to each in binomial nomenclature:
7.   For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.
First Step - Input -
Output -
Second Step - Input -
Output -
8.   When biologists are trying to decide whether viruses are truly alive, these are important:
Two traits viruses have IN COMMON with all living things.

Two traits all living things should have that all viruses do not.




Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


It is sometimes said that Life violates the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.  Why is that not accurate?  Three Points.



What cells can become more dangerous when they go into oxygen debt?  Three Points.



So it turns out that Lamarck was right, somewhat, based on what new discoveries?  Three Points.


Why did Karl call himself “Carolus”?  Three Points.



Most prokaryotes can also be called what other common term?   Three Points.


Brain tissue from Alzheimer’s patients were found to have aluminum in them.  How did it get there?  Three Points.



Old expression:  “There are lies, there are damned lies, and then there are ____________.”  What’s the missing word?  Three Points.



What cell system do viruses often not use, and how is that an advantage for them generally?  Three Points.



Briefly explain why creation stories from all around the world share many similarities.  Three Points.



Why did the British Navy need someone like Darwin on its ship?  Three Points.



Where, approximately, are the Galapagos Islands that Darwin did important work on?  Three Points.





BIO 171

Michael McDarby


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