BIO 171 - Second Exam - 2018

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______1. Electron transport chains would be active in

            a. Mitochondria         b. Nuclei         c. Prokaryotes        d. Ribosomes         e. Where electrons refuse to walk

_______2. If the null hypothesis is true,

            a. The hypothesis can’t be tested         b. There won’t be a variable        c. Results can’t be collected
            d. The original hypothesis is wrong                    e. Then everyone goes home

_______3. Nitrogenous wastes are produced when

            a. Starches are used for respiration         b. Fats are digested        c. Proteins are used for respiration
            d. Proteins are digested                                e. Nitrogen is, like, spilled on the floor

_______ 4. What makes rough endoplasmic reticulum appear rough?

            a. Ribosomes         b. Curled membrane         c. Double membrane        d. Pores
                                                e. The homemade cigarettes

_______ 5. A nucleosome is a kind of

            a. Molecular organelle         b. Microcompartment        c. DNA packaging molecule
            d. Stain inclusion                    e. Word that looks familiar, but isn’t

_______ 6. An experimental variable is called that because it changes

            a. As the experiment goes along                                    b. Between the hypothesis and the test
            c. Between the experimental test and the control test      d. After you collect results and process them
                                    e. Your life forever - no, wait, that’s true love...

_______7. If you understand what every part of a car does, you’ll know exactly how a car works.
                            This concept is called

            a. Inclusion         b. Reductionism         c. Broad-variable        d. Systemism
                                        e. Don’t call it, call a mechanic

_______8. What time units are counted by a molecular clock?

            a. Radioactive half-lives         b. Biological half-lives        c. DNA decay         d. Point mutations
                                        e. They make the cutest little tick-tocks

_______9. Which taxonomy approach is particularly concerned with key features?

            a. Systematics         b. Phylocode         c. Cladistics        d. Classicism         e. Stealthy

_______10. In the middle of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is

            a. A cycle         b. An electron transport chain        c. Ammonia production
            d. A bit with half-glucose molecules        e. A spot where my memory just shuts right down

_______11. Metabolism is primarily concerned with tracking

            a. Nutrients         b. Wastes         c. Energy         d. All of the above equally
                                        e. None of the above equally

_______12. Another way to describe similar in structure but different in function

            a. Homologous but not analogous             b. Analogous but not homologous
            c. Derived but not ancestral                     d. Ancestral but not derived
                        e. Why do we need another way to describe it?

_______13. A cell with a lot of Golgi bodies is likely doing what job?

            a. Absorption         b. Digestion         c. Secretion         d. Reproduction
                                    e. Are there any openings for that job?

_______14. An experimental artifact is a kind of

            a. Reference         b. Device         c. Result        d. Variable         e. Old old sciencey thingy

_______15. In the most common form of academic peer review, the peer is

            a. Reading a paper submitted to a journal         b. Is working in a neighboring laboratory
            c. Is visiting from another laboratory                d. On the committee that comes up with ideas
                                        e. Probably going to point and laugh

_______16. Oxygen debt can be found in

            a. Chloroplast internal spaces         b. Mitochondrial internal spaces        c. Respiratory enzymes
            d. Overtaxed muscles                                e. Some very odd financial documents

_______17. Organisms which are not closely related but which look or behave in a very similar way
                            probably went through

            a. Combined homologies         b. Convergent evolution        c. Shared mutations         d. Divergent evolution
                                                                        e. The same summer camps

_______18. Sectioning is a process used to

            a. Separate multiple data groups in an experiment
            b. Change how many subgroups are classified in a bigger group
            c. Prepare specimens for microscope viewing
            d. Analyze chromosomes individually
            e. Slice up student brains like orange wedges

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. What is the first step in glycolysis?

What change then happens in the target molecule?

2. Briefly explain the endosymbiont theory.

3. Briefly explain what postmodernism is, applied to science.

4. The two features of a good hypothesis -


5. Give two sets of differences between the two types of CHROMOSOMES -



6. The two basic types of indirect observations -

7. What are the two major types of first-level energy transformations in ecosystems?


8. What are two advantages of quantitative data over qualitative data?


9. Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Domain, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Suborder, Superfamily. (No species on the list)


4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

10. According to Malthus, what are the three natural effects of overpopulation?


11. Briefly explain how sexual selection works.

12. What are two different commercial uses for anaerobic organisms?


13. What are the two levels of a double-blind test?


14. The rate at which a particular group evolves is “set” by what other two rates?


15. Both major energy systems depend on the use of Hydrogens. To do what, exactly?

16. Explain briefly how antibiotic resistance can be acquired (not developed).

17. When classification scientists want to change a group’s classification -

18. What are dynein and kinesin?

Also, how are they different?

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1 Give two different rules that apply specifically to each in binomial nomenclature:

2.   Answer for sexual reproduction:




Compared to Asexual


Compared to Asexual

3.   For each category of microscope, there are two different terms that apply.
of the
Imaging Beam

How the Beam

Interacts with



4.   For three different types of vesicles or vacuoles -
Structure NAME Structure FUNCTION


5.   When biologists are trying to decide whether viruses are truly alive, these are important:
Two traits viruses have IN COMMON with all living things.

Two traits all living things should have that all viruses do not.

6. Define the terms -



7.  Give the steps that, according to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, should happen between the steps given. 
The environment around a population changes

The new population is different enough to be considered a new species.

8. Give the names and basic functions of three molecular-complex organelles.

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Why is the total yield of aerobic respiration difficult to get an exact number for? Three Points.

What particular feature is shared by almost all uric acid producers? Three Points.

Why did no one expect ecosystems at hydrothermal vents? Three Points.

What do the words (not the term) mean in binomial nomenclature? Three Points.

What is probably soon going to be the standard way to decide a group is a separate species? Three Points.

What is a triple-blind test? Three Points.

How is uniformitarianism generally applied? Three Points.

Explain: “Epigenetics can be largely LaMarckian.” Three Points.

What was the first section of Darwin’s Origin of Species about? Three Points.

Why would microscopic specimens be coated in gold? Three Points.

What are the two classification criteria for intermediate filaments? Four Points.


BI 171



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