BI 171 - Third Exam - 2006

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).

 

_______ 1.  Cells swell up and pop when placed into what sort of solution?

                        a. Hypertonic         b. Hydrotonic         c. Isotonic        d. Hypotonic         e. Popotonic

 

_______ 2.  In coupled reactions, what exactly are the couples?

                        a. Exergonic reactions                                                     b. Endergonic reactions
                        c. An endergonic and an exergonic reaction                       d. Any of these
                                                e. Thatís no oneís business but theirs

 

_______ 3.  Under normal conditions, pond amebas have more ions in the cytoplasm than are found in the
                            pond water. Ions enter the amebas by

                        a. Osmosis                         b. Passive transport                         c. Active transport
                        d. Facilitated diffusion                         e. Sneaking past the guards

 

_______ 4.  What is the most likely function of a cell that has lots of microvilli?

                        a. Absorption                 b. Protection                 c. Moving from place to place
                        d. Protein production                 e.  Works in an Italian restaurant

 

_______ 5.  A nucleosomeís main function is in

                        a. DNA processing                     b. RNA storage                    c. Spindle formation
                        d. Chromosome structure            e. Determining how many similar-sounding terms we can learn

 

_______ 6.  Intermediate filaments are often found in cells that

                        a. Are actively swimming                         b. Are photosynthesizing
                        c. Are under physical stress                     d. Moving particles around
                                    e. Havenít reached their full adult height

 

_______ 7.  Okazaki fragments are found

                        a. On transfer RNA             b. On one side of DNA            c. In the nucleolus
                        d. In cell membranes                         e. When most cars explode

 

_______ 8.  A cell that produces secretions should have lots of

                        a. Microvilli                         b. Golgi bodies                         c. Endoplasmic reticulum
                        d. Peroxisomes                                 e. Self-esteem issues

 

_______ 9.  A central vacuole serves the function of

                        a. A second nucleus                         b. Pumping out water                        c. Providing structure
                        d. Recycling materials                                    e. Annoying all of the other bits

 

_______ 10.  The "fluid" part of the fluid mosaic model refers to

                        a. Osmosis         b. Phospholipids         c. Cilia        d. DNA replication         e. Papaya juice

 

_______ 11.  During apoptosis, a cell should make more

                        a. Nucleoli                         b. Food vacuoles                         c. Golgi bodies
                        d. Lysosomes                                                 e. Noise

 

_______ 12.  Two chromatids are held together by the

                        a. Spindle                         b. Nucleolus                         c. Centrosome
                        d. Centromere                                   e. Memory...burning out...

 

_______ 13.  Which allow movement in opposite directions on microtubules?

                        a. Actin & myosin                           b. Dynein & kinesin
                        c. Tubulin & tRNA                         d. Glucolin and fructolin
                                    e. The little yellow line done the middle

 

_______ 14.  Which are almost "mirror images" of each other?

                        a. Prophase and telophase                         b. Interphase and prophase
                        c. Anaphase and telophase                         d. Interphase and metaphase
                                                        e. Do my hands count?

 

_______ 15.  Which is surrounded by an envelope?

                        a. Mitochondrion                         b. Chloroplast                         c. Animal cell
                        d. Nucleus                                             e. Do molecules get telephone bills?

 

_______ 16.  In group translocation

                        a. Materials move in both directions through a membrane
                        b. Pieces of chromosome are exchanged
                        c. Cofactors move electrons around
                        d. Substrates are moved and chemically changed
                        e. Moving expenses are not reimbursed

 

_______ 17.  For point mutations,

                        a. The changes are too small to have any effects
                        b. Effects happens, but all are roughly equal
                        c. Deletions are worse than substitutions
                        d. Substitutions are worse than deletions
                        e. What is the point, anyway?

 

_______ 18.  Shifts in pH affect enzyme activity because

                        a. The varying amount of water puts pressure on the molecules
                        b. Hydrogen bonds are affected by the ions
                        c. Enzymes only function in a neutral environment
                        d. All of the above
                        e. Enzymes are moody that way

 

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE
: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  What are two ways to keep a reaction from reaching dynamic equilibrium?
 

 

2. Briefly explain how one the two types of genetic redundancy works.

 

 

3.  What does MTOC stand for?

 

 

4.  What are two different general types of proteins embedded in cell membranes?
 

 

5.  Using the table attached to the exam (detach it if you need to), translate this gene sequence into an amino acid sequence -

                T A C G T C A A T C G G T A T C T G T T C A C A

 

 

6.  What are two pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiont theory for chloroplasts?
 

 

7.  For a low chromosome number, compared to a high number, give one -
ADVANTAGE:

 

DISADVANTAGE:

 

8.  What is the function of cholesterol in a cell?

 

 

9.  What are two different ways that indirect enzyme inhibition can work?
 

 

10.  Which enzyme is used to actually replicate the new DNA strand?

 

 

11.  What are two things about prokaryote chromosomes that make them different from eukaryote chromosomes?
 

 

12.  In a multicellular system, what are two ways that a flux can be kept from moving toward equilibrium?
 

 

13.  What is a Q10?

 

 

14.  What are two types of molecules or DNA sequence (except for mRNA or the gene itself) that participate in gene transcription?
 

 

 

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  What are three sets of differences between mitosis and meiosis?

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

 

   

 

  

 

  

 

2.  When enzyme activity on reaction rate is graphed by temperature, the rate declines on each side of an optimum. As temperature moves away from the optimum, explain what happens on a molecular level to makes the rate decline -
Below the optimum,
as the temperature
drops?
Above the optimum,
as the temperature
rises?
3.  Give four steps, in order (but you can skip steps) that happen after messenger RNA is made.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.  Give three different ways of adapting to hypotonic conditions, and for each give an example of an organism that uses that adaptation.
 

 

 

 

 

 

5.   In the graph below of Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, explain why the curve is doing what itís doing at each marked point, in terms of the enzyme molecules at work.
Graph matches one from class and link in book, marked at upslope, curve near top, and top flat area.

 

6. Fill in the labels on this drawing of eukaryote cell structures.

Simple line drawing - match parts with names of parts.

 

 

7.  Give three sets of differences between -

CILIA

FLAGELLA

 

 

 

 

  

  

 

 

Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS.

Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

How is the fact that chimpanzees have 2 more chromosomes than humans used to support the idea that we share a recent common ancestor? Three Points.

 

 

What two different areas of medical research are particularly interested in telomeres? Two Points Each.

 

 

Many reactions that happen in cells are not reversible in any practical way. Why not? Three Points.

 

 

What makes vitamin an odd biological term? Three Points.

 

 

For Three Points Each, what are the two different ways to classify intermediate filaments?

 

 

When graphing reaction rates over temperature ranges, what sort of organisms tend to have very broad curves that are not very high? Three Points.

 

 

 

Root pressure is counteracted by what other force? Three Points.

 

 

 

For Three Points Each, give two Kingdoms in which all of the cells have cell walls.

.

 

GENE TRANSLATION TABLE

CODONS ON MESSENGER RNA

 

First

Letter

SECOND

LETTER

Third

Letter

U

C

A

G

phelyalanine

serine

tyrosine

cysteine

U

U

phelyalanine

serine

tyrosine

cysteine

C

leucine

serine

STOP

STOP

A

leucine

serine

STOP

tryptophan

G

leucine

proline

histidine

arginine

U

C

leucine

proline

histidine

arginine

C

leucine

proline

glutamine

arginine

A

leucine

proline

glutamine

arginine

G

isoleucine

threonine

asparagine

serine

U

A

isoleucine

threonine

asparagine

serine

C

isoleucine

threonine

lysine

arginine

A

*START*

methionine

threonine

lysine

arginine

G

valine

alanine

aspartate

glycine

U

G

valine

alanine

aspartate

glycine

C

valine

alanine

glutamate

glycine

A

valine

alanine

glutamate

glycine

G


 
     

BI 171

McDarby

 

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