BI 171 - Third Exam - 2009

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______  1.  In the lab, the salt solution introduced around the plant cells had less water than the cytoplasm - it was

                    a. An isotonic solution         b. A hypotonic solution        c. A hypertonic solution         d. A hydrophobic solution            e. Um, drier-?


_______ 2.  Under what conditions do intermediate filaments often appear?

                    a. Mechanical stress         b. Early cell division        c. Secretion         d. Passive transport        e. When intramediate filaments just won't do


_______ 3.  Centromeres have attachment points for

                    a. Ribosomes         b. Membranes         c. Microfilaments        d. Microtubules         e. Post-It notes


_______ 4.  The turnover number applies to

                    a. Gene expression         b. Enzyme processing        c. Active transport         d. Mitosis rate        e. The cool side of the pillow

_______ 5.  Genetic redundancy applies to

                    a. Crossing over and substitution mutations        b. Enzyme amplification and meiosis II        c. Allele amplification and meiosis I
                    d. Prokaryotes only                                                                e. What terms I've totally forgotten

_______ 6.  ATP becoming ADP is often

                    a. The endergonic reaction in a coupled reaction                            b. The exergonic reaction in a coupled reaction
                    c. Found in the hydrophobic layer of the cell membrane                 d. Found in the hydrophilic layer of the cell membrane
                                                                            e. Not covered by its medical insurance

_______ 7.  A membrane phospholipid has phosphate on

                    a. Two of the three glycerol carbons        b. Two of the four glycerol carbons        c. One of the four glycerol carbons
                    d. One of the three glycerol carbons                            e. A bit of the thingy near that piece

_______ 8.  Because of the way it affects cells, radiation effects generally show up

                    a. In basic cell chemistry         b. Just before a cell divides        c. After a cell divides         d. By just killing the cell
                                                                        e. Just when the cells have laid down for a nap

_______ 9.  When NADH loses a H+ and is temporarily NAD-, it has become

                    a. Reduced             b. Activated             c. Phosphorylated            d. Oxidized             e. Much less boring

_______ 10.  Ferredoxin is needed to

                    a. Move microtubules during flagellar activity            b. Start DNA replication            c. Get ATP to work properly
                    d. Move electrons during photosynthesis                                    e. I remember this...I think...

_______ 11.  To establish a Q
10, you'd compare a reaction to one

                    a. With ten times more reactant             b. With ten times more enzyme            c. Ten degrees warmer
                    d. That had been running for ten minutes                            e. With ten more q's in it

_______ 12. Crossing over typically happens during

                    a. Interphase             b. Meiosis I             c. Meiosis II            d. Mitosis             e. The middle of a moonless night

_______ 13.  Reradiation often happens when

                    a. A proton leaves the atom                 b. An electron jumps outward                c. A proton enters an atom
                    d. An electron jumps inward                        e. There's radiation, but it', something

_______ 14. A limiting factor in dynamic equilibrium is usually a

                    a. Reactant             b. Enzyme             c. Product            d. Rate             e. Question on the exam

_______ 15.  Dynein and kinesin function in

                    a. Cytokinesis             b. DNA replication             c. Swimming            d. Moving materials             e. Foreign cartoons?

_______ 16. A basic difference between prokaryote and eukaryote chromosomes is based on

                    a. How transcription happens                b. How translation happens                c. How genes are distributed
                    d. When they get replicated as whole units                        e. Their cell-phone plans (Prokaryotes pay by the minute)

_______ 17.  Polar bodies appear during

                    a. Adult cell interphase         b. Sperm meiosis        c. Egg cell meiosis         d. Mitosis of embryos        e. A typical day at Santa's workshop

_______ 18. Overall,

                    a. Producers have more species and more biomass than consumers
                    b. Consumers have more species and more biomass than producers
                    c. Producers have more species but less biomass than consumers
                    d. Producers have more biomass but fewer species than consumers
                    e. Is this even in English anymore?


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  What is the function of chaperonins?


2.  What are two different adaptations used by fresh water organisms to keep osmosis from damaging them?


3.  What are two different ways that minerals contribute to the function of enzymes?


4.  What are two totally different uses for carotenoids?


5.  For a low chromosome number (compared to a high one):




6.  In a food chain, what happens ultimately to most of the -




7.  Why does rough endoplasmic reticulum have ribosomes on it?

8.  What organelles probably started as endosymbionts?


9.  What are two different types of structures that cells make but are technically outside of the cell membrane?


10.  Briefly describe how allosteric end-product inhibition works.


11.  Name four different types of membrane proteins.


12.  What are two ways that a living cell can increase the flux rate at which a material moves through the membrane?


13. What are ribozymes?


14. Give the functions (not just the names) of two different types of vacuoles.


15. What are two different things that should happen only during prophase?



Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Fill in the arrow-headed labels on this drawing of eukaryote cell structures.







2.  Give three sets of differences between -






3. Two different things that happen during transcription in a cell.



Two different things that happen during translation in a cell.



4.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:  Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.

                                           High Frequency \                          Visible Range                             /                      Low Frequency              
                         *                                     *   /   *           *                                                     *    \    *                      



5.  When enzyme activity / reaction rate is graphed by temperature, the rate declines on each side of an optimum. As temperature moves away from the optimum, explain what happens on a molecular level to makes the rate decline -
Below the optimum,as
the temperature drops?



Above the optimum, as
the temperature rises?



6.  In the graph below of Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, explain why the curve is doing what it's doing at each marked point, in terms of the enzyme molecules at work.

                                                                                                                               Along the top flat part


                                                                                     Where the rising curve begins to flatten out

V                                      As the curve rises steeply
                                          Substrate Concentration (as Enzymes remain constant) ---->

7.  Give the name and basic function of three enzymes involved in DNA replication






8. For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.
First Step - Input -
Output -
Second Step - Input -
Output -

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Why does a progressing cancer pretty much have to reactivate its telomerase gene expression? Three Points.

What's "wrong" with the terms intron and exon? Three Points.

Why exactly is an extra chromosome passed to an embryo very dangerous? Three Points.

What do enzyme-mediated reactions have a different equilibrium point than the non-enzyme version? Three Points.

The "proper" pronunciation of apoptosis is related to the pronunciation of what other cell-related term? Three Points.

Why are mitochondrial molecular clocks preferred to nuclear molecular clocks? Three Points.

What does cholesterol do in a cell membrane, exactly? Three Points.

What cell structure does not appear to have an official name? Three Points.

C4 photosynthesis prevents what sort of damage? Three Points.




BI 171



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