BIO 171  - Third Exam  - 2013

 Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections). 


Multiple Choice

            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

                        Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.



_______ 1.    Parasites  often use alternation of generations because

                        a.  It aids in their dispersal                              b.  It increases overall numbers

                        c.  There is a doubling of advantages             d.  They are non-mobile

                            e.  They have short attention spans and forget what they just did



_______ 2.    Okazaki fragments appear during

                        a.   Transduction                     b.  Transcription                      c.   Translation

                        d.   Replication                                    e.  Japanese explosions



_______ 3.    Gametophytes in early land forms depended on what conditions to perform

                                    their primary function?

                        a.  Free water                           b.  Soil nutrients                     c.  Wind

                        d.  Animal partners                  e.   A little mood music was helpful…



_______ 4.    A dominant allele is, compared to a recessive allele,

                        a.  Usually more advantageous                       b.  More likely to show up

                        c.   Usually significantly different                 d.  More likely to be passed on

                                           e.   Unlikely to be reported for abuse



_______ 5.    Which would not produce identical twins from split embryos?

                        a.  Blastula                                 b.   Deuterostomes

                        c.  Gastrula                                d.   Protostomes

                                    e.  The Anti-Cloning League



_______ 6.    Which should probably come from hox genes?

                        a.   Right-left distinctions and mouth placement

                        b.   Brain placement and memory function

                        c.   Genital development and puberty initiation

                        d.   All of the above

                        e.   Why are there genes that sound like a hairball being coughed up?



_______ 7.    Adhesion and cohesion are major influences in

                        a.   Muscle tissue                                 b.  Vascular tissue

                        c.   Ground tissue                                d.   Connective tissue

                        e.   I’m figuring maybe some kind of tissue…




_______ 8.    Flagella and cilia both

                        a.  Are membrane all the way through

                        b.  May have added-on structures

                        c.  Are held down by intermediate filaments

                        d.  Have microtubules in them

                        e.  Would make bad Ben and Jerry’s flavors




_______ 9.    Metamorphosis commonly results in

                        a.  Different reproductive strategies                     b.  Increased carrying capacity

                        c.  A completely new set of genes                       d.  Alternation of generations

                                                e.  Big surprises at class reunions




_______ 10.    Which is a negative chemotaxis?

                        a.  Water and soil chemicals mixing in a waterfall

                        b.  Water and nutrients entering a root

                        c.  Rabbits running from a dog they smell

                        d.  A male moth finding a female through tracking her pheromones

                        e.  Is it just April, or are taxes mentioned in everything?




_______ 11.   An acrosome is

                        a.  An acidic vacuole                           b.   A haploid nucleus

                        c.  A special mitochondrion                 d.  A vesicle full of enzymes

                                                e.  Something they sell to treat acne




_______ 12.   Membrane molecules commonly used as markers

                        a.  Glycocalex                                     b.  G proteins

                        c.   Ligands                                         d.  Cyclic AMP

                             e.  Proteins that look like little yellow flags





_______ 13.   Which is associated with a near-extinction event?

                        a.  Bottleneck effect                           b.  Niche recovery

                        c.  Population rebound                        d.  Founder effect

                                    e.  Wrong place, wrong time, bye-bye




_______ 14.   The two types of genetic redundancy happen during

                        a.  Prophase and anaphase                  b.  Prophase and metaphase

                        c.   Prophase and telophase                 d.   Interphase and metaphase

                                    e.   Times when genes get very redundant



_______ 15.   Evo-devo is becoming closely associated with

                        a.  Linkage                              b.  Epigenetics             c.  Genome studies

                        d.  Mutation studies                            e.  Science - schmience



_______ 16.   Which organisms would most likely have the fewest cell-division errors?

                        a.   Sexual, with low chromosome number

                        b.   Sexual, with high chromosome number

                        c.   Asexual, with low chromosome number

                        d.   Asexual, with high chromosome number

                        e.   Can’t we just dock their pay if they screw up?



_______ 17.   You have a membrane that is permeable to water and sodium, but not to

                                    magnesium.  On one side, an aqueous solution of 10% sodium; 

                                    on the other, an aqueous solution of 5% sodium, 10% magnesium.

                                    What should happen?

                        a.  Diffusion and osmosis in the same direction

                        b.  Diffusion one way, osmosis the other

                        c.   No net movement

                        d.  Only diffusion, no osmosis

                        e.   Skull becomes permeable to brain matter;  it dribbles out



_______ 18.   Histones are

                        a.  Active during early embryo development

                        b.  Critical when a seed germinates

                        c.  A major part of chromosome structure

                        d.  A common 2nd messenger molecule

                        e.  What you say when you meet Mick Jagger and the guys



Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.      What is the function of dynein and kinesin?



2.    What are two basic functions  that appear repeatedly in tissues of different groups?


3.   When a prokaryote cell divides how does it “make sure” that each new cell will get a chromosome?



4.   Explain why the vast majority of traits are multiple-gene traits.



5.    Two different ways that cells typically can increase flux into the cytoplasm -


6.  Give two widely-used research model organisms, and state a major area of research that they are used for.


7.    Briefly describe position effect.



8.   There are two different clear advantages to the production of many offspring in asexual reproducers.  What are they?


9.  Give two major functions that drive coevolution in animals and plants.  Don’t be too vague.


10.   Describe or draw a membrane phospholipid molecule.  Label the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic parts.




11.  Why would a small population potentially evolve faster than a large population?


12.   Give two major steps, in order, of a transduction pathway moving just through the membrane.  Include the types of molecules involved.


13.   Name two different enzymes involved in DNA replication.


14.  Growth in multicelled systems is based on what two different processes?


15.   The two different major functions that happen during interphase -


16.   Explain why having multiple genome databases can be very useful to research.






Long Answer.  

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.


1.   Give the functions (names are NOT enough) of three different membrane protein types.






2.    Describe (a simple term is not enough) three different ways that groups can become reproductively isolated.






3.   Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -








4.   For each embryonic germ layer, name the layer and give one organ system that is mostly derived from that layer.









5.   What happens in the four “tissue” zones of a fungus?






6.   For the four experimental "systems" listed below, give a critical discovery in genetics history that was made using them.














7.   Give three different ways of adapting to hypotonic conditions, and for each give an example of an organism that uses that adaptation.








8.    What are three sets of differences between mitosis and meiosis?









Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


How exactly does a pseudopod generate attractive force to the surface it’s crawling on?  Three Points.



Why do microvilli tend to wiggle?  Three Points.



When chromosomes move toward the edge of a cell, how is the spindle getting shorter?  Three Points.



In many animals, what a sperm nucleus enters is not an actual ovum  – why is its production not complete by then?  Three Points.




Why is it called spiral cleavage?  Three Points.



What is it about polyploidy that makes it particularly lethal?  Three Points.




Briefly explain (don’t just describe) the white matter – gray matter distribution differences between the spinal cord and the brain.  Three Points.





Why is genetics-based classification of prokaryotes particularly difficult?  Three Points.





What two funding-rich areas of research are particularly interested in telomeres?  Two Points Each.





BI 171



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