BI 171 - Fourth Exam - 2002

NOTE - the numbers link to related information in the book.  Not all information on old exams is in the new book (so some numbers have no link), and if something looks unfamiliar, you can check to see if it's from a chapter you're supposed to be studying for your current exam.

 

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

 

_______ 1. A common reporter gene codes for

                        a. Medical proteins                         b. Antibiotic resistance
                       
c. Industrial proteins                       d. Culture shape
   
                                             e. Bad spelling and grammar

 

_______ 2.  Intermediate filaments are most commonly found in cells that

                        a. That crawl                             b. Are preparing for cytokinesis
                        c. That swim                             d. Are under mechanical stress
   
                                         e. That canít make up their minds

 

_______ 3. An acrosome features importantly in
                        a. Spindle function             b. Morphogenesis             c. Fertilization
                        d. Cytokinesis                         e. The "too much information" concept

 

_______ 4. Which best describes histones?

                       
a. Microtubule Organizing Centers             b. Spools for winding up DNA
                        c. Synapsis organizers                               d. Electrophoresis gels
   
                                                             e. Deeper than hertones

 

_______5. The chance of an AB parent and an O parent having an A child is

                        a. 0%             b. 25%             c. 50%             d. 75%
                              e. Donít I need a calculator (or a mathematician) for this?

 

_______6. Which is the proper transduction pathway?

                              a. Protein kinase, 2nd messenger, G protein, enzyme
                              b. Enzyme, 2nd Messenger, G protein, protein kinase
                              c. G protein, 2nd Messenger, protein kinase, enzyme
                              d. Enzyme, 2nd messenger, protein kinase, G protein
                              e. How can I pick an order if none of the steps look familiar?

 

_______ 7. Muscles depend on the activity of

                              a. Cilia                     b. Microfilaments                     c. Microtubules
                        d. Coated pits                         e. Something in spinach

 

_______ 8. In prokaryotes, active ribosomes would be found

                        a. In contact with chromosomes             b. On endoplasmic reticulum
   
                          c. On the inner cell membrane surface     d. Any of these places
   
                                     e. Drunk and disorderly on any Saturday night

 

_______ 9. Which pair are most closely related?

                        a. rRNA - DNA                             b. Spindle - telomere
                        c. Kinetochore - centromere           d. Basal body - coated vesicle
   
                                                         e. Biology class - insanity

 

_______ 10. In eukaryotes, genes for pathway proteins are commonly

                        a. Distributed randomly                             b. Linked
                        c. On the sex chromosomes                      d. Placed in sequence
   
                                                             e. Blacktopped over

 

_______ 11. Promoters and enhancers are generally attached to

   
                         a. DNA                 b. Cell membranes                 c. Receptors
                       d. Nuclear envelopes   
             e. Advertising agencies

 

_______12. In prokaryotes, a protein needed continuously or regularly is called a

                        a. Inducible protein             b. Regulon             c. Pathway protein 
                        d. Housekeeping protein                e. Minimum-wage slave

 

_______ 13. Under ideal conditions, mitochondrial DNA

                       
a. Is diploid         b. Inherits along maternal lines         c. Does not mutate
                        d. Is only single-stranded             e. Feels superior to all the other NAs

 

_______14. Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked trait. When a boy is color blind, he
   
                                             inherited the allele(s) from

                       a. His mother                 b. His father                 c. Either parent
   
                         d. Both parents                         e. Great Grandad, the crazy one

 

_______15. The eventual fates of embryonic cells are determined very early in

                        a. Mitosis                 b. Radial cleavage                c. Meiosis
                        d. Spiral cleavage   
                 e. Any Steven Seagal movie

 

_______16. A karyotype is

                        a. Determined by Southern Blotting
                        b. Particular to a species
                        c. Particular to an individual
                        d. A product of two different genes
                        e. Some sort of old-fashioned printer

 

_______17. Steroid hormones, unlike other messenger molecules, can

                        a. Attach directly to chromosomes
                        b. Set off multiple receptors
                        c. Access multiple transduction pathways
                        d. Be deactivated with carbohydrates
                        e. Make you act like an idiot

 

_______18. To do Southern blotting, it is necessary to have

                        a. Plasmids do part of the work
                        b. An equal mix of male cells and female cells
                        c. Cells that make a lot of the target protein
                        d. All of these
                        e. Many bottles of Kentucky-made fermented beverage

 

 

Short Answer. 

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE
: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. What are two different applications for gene transfer in crop plants?
 

 

2. What are two different uses for microtubules in cells?
 

 

3. Chromosome numbers (low or high) in organisms are a balance between what two advantageous features?
 

 

 

4. What are two entirely different types of functions done by, for example, an epithelial cell during interphase?
 

 

5. Briefly explain (donít just define!) How position effect works.

 

 

 

6. Briefly explain the purpose of Okazaki fragments.

 

 

 

7. Briefly explain why a base insertion is a much more powerful mutation than a substitution.

 

 

 

8. Give two general advantages that can be gotten from metamorphosis between life-cycle stages.
 

 

 

9. Briefly describe the two ways that polyspermy is avoided.
 

 

 

10. What is an exon?

 

 

 

11. What are two life-style types that benefit from alternation of generations?
 

 

 

12. Give an example of a trait that is passed on epigenetically.

 

 

13. Transfer RNA (tRNA) binds to what two other molecules?
 

 

14. What does the signal region of a protein do?

 

 

15. What are two molecular-level ways that inducers can induce?
 

 

 

Long Answer. 

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note:
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Give, in order of occurrence, the phases of mitosis, and for each, tell one distinct thing that happens particularly during that phase.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Explain, step-by-step (donít be constrained by the number of lines) the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process.





3. Here it is - determine the sequences of the named molecules from this DNA sequence.

DNA _______________________________________________________________________
            T   A   C   A   G   C   C   C   C   A   C   A   T   T   G   C   A   T   G   A   T   A   T   T

mRNA _____________________________________________________________________


Protein_____________________________________________________________________

 

4. Name the three embryonic germ layers, and for each give one organ, structure, or system that forms from that layer.
 

 

 

 

 

 

5. In any organism with genders, give three sets of differences there would be between:

SPERM

EGG CELLS

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Whatever you choose from the history of discoveries about genetics, make sure that your list of three discoveries is in chronological order

Researcher or Research Organism

Discovery

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Give three separate sets of differences between mitosis and meiosis.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS. 

Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

How are eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella different? Two Points each.

 

 

What is the evolutionary implication of actin being a very similar molecule no matter where itís found? Three Points.

 

 

Whatís the relationship between vestigial structures and junk DNA? Three Points.

 

 

What lucrative research fields are vigorously investigating telomeres? Two Points each. What is each investigation trying to find out? Three Points each.

 

 

Potentially, what bad thing could result from being given unnecessary antibiotics (Two Points), and briefly how could that come about? (Three Points)

 

 

What is indicated by "puffs" in insect chromosomes? Three Points.

 

 

 

What sorts of organisms were being studied by the inventor of the Polymerase Chain Reaction?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What assumption about stem cell use will probably turn out to not be true? Three Points.

 

 

 

What non-spherical shape are blastulas commonly (Two Points), and why? (Three Points)




 

GENE TRANSLATION TABLE

CODONS ON MESSENGER RNA

First

Letter

SECOND

LETTER

Third

Letter

U

C

A

G

phelyalanine

serine

tyrosine

cysteine

U

U

phelyalanine

serine

tyrosine

cysteine

C

leucine

serine

STOP

STOP

A

leucine

serine

STOP

tryptophan

G

leucine

proline

histidine

arginine

U

C

leucine

proline

histidine

arginine

C

leucine

proline

glutamine

arginine

A

leucine

proline

glutamine

arginine

G

isoleucine

threonine

asparagine

serine

U

A

isoleucine

threonine

asparagine

serine

C

isoleucine

threonine

lysine

arginine

A

*START*

methionine

threonine

lysine

arginine

G

valine

alanine

aspartate

glycine

U

G

valine

alanine

aspartate

glycine

C

valine

alanine

glutamate

glycine

A

valine

alanine

glutamate

glycine

G

 

 

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