BI 171 - Fourth Exam - 2008

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______  1.  Materials move through a mass spectroscope in a

                    a. Gel             b. Nylon matrix             c. Gas form            d. Wax             e. Very orderly manner

_______  2.  Approximately how much more efficient is the aerobic stage of respiration over the anaerobic stage?

                    a. Twice             b. Five times             c. Fifty times            d. Eighteen times             e. A smidge

_______  3.  Which structure is derived from ectoderm?

                    a. Skeletal muscle             b. Brain             c. Stomach            d. Heart             e. Ectostuff

_______  4.  Ammonia is primarily a product of

                    a. Protein breakdown             b. Protein synthesis             c. Photosynthesis            d. Fat digestion             e. China?

_______  5.  Which is a signal ligand?

                    a. Histone             b. Chlorophyll             c. Hormone            d. Coenzyme             e. What language is this again?

_______ 6.  In reradiation, the frequency changes when

                    a. Electrons jump orbital levels                    b. The radiation passes through a transparent object
                    c. The radiation is reflected                         d. The radiation is absorbed by some atoms
                                                        e. The dial is turned

_______ 7. The purpose of all fruit is to

                    a. Attract pollinators             b. Nourish spores             c. Nourish seeds             d. Disperse seeds            e. Be used in gum. Or pie.

_______ 8.  In both major energy processes, electrons go with

                    a. Light             b. Hydrogens             c. ATPs            d. Sugars             e. Anyone - they have poor taste

_______ 9.  Which would use different chlorophyll molecules?

                    a. Algae at different depths                     b. Land plants in different environments                    c. Chloroplasts and mitochondria
                    d. Two reactions of photosynthesis                                        e. Only organisms that could afford them

_______ 10.  The end of the embryo stage is marked by the

                    a. Formation of the three main layers                    b. Presence of circulating blood
                    c. Hollowing of the ball of cells                             d. Formation of all the major structures
                                                    e. The little timer going "ding!"

_______ 11.  Most of the material of ancient organisms is now

                    a. Lost as heat             b. Contained in fossils            c. In current organisms             d. Held in ATP            e. What am I, lost and found?

_______ 12. Which process increases the carrying capacity of an ecosystem for a species?

                    a. Alternation of generations in ferns                     b. Metamorphosis in insects                    c. Coevolution with pollinators
                    d. Multiple genders in fungi                                                            e. Fanny packs

_______ 13. How closely humans and chimpanzees are related is based upon comparing

                    a. Homologous proteins             b. Genomes             c. Mitochondrial DNA            d. All of the above             e. Fashion choices

_______ 14.  An antenna complex is made up of

                    a. Nervous tissue             b. Connective tissue             c. ATP            d. Chlorophyll             e. TV trucks

_______ 15. Auxins in what will be a germinating seed's stem and leaves produce a

                    a. Positive phototropism             b. Positive geotropism            c. Negative geotropism             d. Negative phototropism
                                                                                e. Stem and leaves

_______ 16.  For the southern blot technique, you need

                    a. Cells that make a lot of the key protein                    b. To denature the key protein
                    c. To apply significant heat                                         d. All of these
                                        e. A blot. And someone with a drawly accent.

_______ 17.  What's the typical location of a G protein?

                    a. Attached to a gene inside the nucleus
                    b. Embedded on the inside surface of the cell membrane
                    c. Adjacent to the receptor on the outer surface of the cell membrane
                    d. Moving through the cytoplasm
                    e. Well, look for the spot labeled "G"...

_______ 18. An acrosome is

                    a. A food-containing body in a seed                    b. A reproductive structure of a fungus hypha
                    c. Usually full of carotenoids                              d. An enzyme-containing vacuole in a sperm
                                        e. Keep saying it: it's almost over, it's almost over...


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  What are two possible terminal electron acceptors in respiration processes?


2.  Name two different features that should be under the control of HOX genes.


3.  Under what conditions do muscle cells generally go into oxygen debt?


4.  What are the three major stages by which energy moves through a food chain, in order?

5.  Electrophoresis separates molecules or parts of molecules based upon what two factors?


6.  Why don't steroid hormones use the typical transduction pathways?


7.  What are two different ways that ATP contribute reducing activation energy / getting a reaction started?


8. Once a cell is potentially triploid, what are two different ways that polyspermy is prevented?


9.  Growth in multicellular organisms involves what two different cellular processes?


10.  Oxaloacetate -
In which
process - step?
Function in
that step?
11.  What are two different basic tissue functions found in both plants and animals?


12.  What are two completely different uses that plants have for carotenoids?


13. When it evolved, what was the huge adaptive advantage of pollen?


14.  In a redox reaction, what happens to the reactant that is -


15a. What part of a sperm is not supposed to enter the egg cell?


15b.  Why?


16. What happens during contact inhibition?


Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Give the steps that repeat in the Polymerase Chain Reaction. There is not a set number, since some steps can be seen as single or double. Include all temperature changes.





2.  Give three sets of differences. Do not say the same thing twice with different wording.



3. For three different types of model research organisms, give the organism (as it's commonly referred to) and give an area of basic research that they are commonly used for.



4.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.

                                                 High Frequency \               Visible Range                /               Low Frequency          
                         *                                          *    /   *         *                                *   \      *


5.  Give four completely different examples of anaerobic organisms' impact on humans.






6. What are the four "zones" in a typical fungus, and what is the basic purpose of each?


7.  Give four basic steps of glycolysis. They don't have to be in-a-row consecutive, but they do need to be in proper order.


8. For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.
First Step - Input -
Output -
Second Step - Input -
Output -

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

What class of vitamins are sources for the main electron carriers? Three Points.

What exactly do the microwaves in a microwave oven interact with? Three Points.

What nutrient do plants require to make ferredoxin? Three Points.

In plants, there's the P700 and P680 systems. What do those numbers represent? Three Points.

Land plants generally use fungus symbionts to help them do what? Three Points.

What life cycle feature do most uric-acid-producing animals have? Three Points.

What shape is a human blastula (Two Points), and why is it that shape (Three Points)?

What is the "natural" purpose of restriction enzymes? Three Points.

For Polymerase Chain Reaction, where did the original polymerase come from? Three Points.

Why is a gene for antibiotic resistance a good marker gene in the production of recombinants? Three Points.



BI 171



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