BI 171 - Fourth Exam - 2009

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  Which uses radioactive markers?

a. Knockout mice         b. Plasmid transfer         c. Polymerase Chain Reaction         d. Southern blot        e. Really cheap elementary schools


_______  2.  Which is most likely under the control of HOX genes?

                    a. Disease resistance         b. Fin placement        c. Sex cell production         d. Metamorphosis timing        e. Hairball ejection


_______  3.  Carrying capacity can be increased if a species

                    a. Reproduces asexually         b. Reproduces sexually        c. Uses alternation of generations         d. Goes through metamorphosis
                                                                                e. Hits the gym regularly

_______  4. Auxins help produce

                    a. Negative geotropism in stems                 b. Negative phototropism in ants                c. Positive geotropism in stems
                    d. Positive phototropism in ants                                                e. Sad-faced emoticons

_______ 5.  Anaerobes are important in production of many dairy products because they make

                    a. Acids             b. Alcohol             c. Carbon dioxide            d. Lipids             e. Little "moo" noises


_______ 6. In order to select bacteria that have successfully picked up transfer plasmids, researchers

                    a. Transfer them individually to culture plates                        b. Bombard them with radiation
                    c. Treat them with antibiotics                                               d. Tag them with fluorescence molecules
                                                                          e. Offer them a cookie

_______ 7.  Most natural feedback control systems are

                    a. Positive             b. Negative             c. Neutral            d. Passive             e. Really confusing


_______ 8.  The molecules on the egg cell membrane are set up to

                    a. Pull in polar bodies         b. Produce fusion        c. Limit egg cell production         d. Prevent polyspermy        e. Spell out encouraging sayings


_______ 9.  Contact inhibition is a critical part of

                    a. Embryo development             b. Genome mapping            c. Fertilization             d. Germination            e. Dating


_______ 10.  Oxygen debt happens in

                    a. Plant cells when there's no light                          b. Muscle cells that need more oxygen than they can get
                    c. Lung cells, in order to move oxygen                    d. Water when oxygen levels drop
                                    e. Future banks - you won't want to default on their loans!

_______ 11.  In electrophoresis, samples are put into the medium closest to the positive pole.  At the end, the bands furthest from their
                            starting points will be molecules that are

                    a. Small and positive             b. Small and negative             c. Large and positive            d. Large and negative             e. Less close


_______ 12. The primary factor that allows movement of water in tall trees is

                    a. Cohesion             b. Photosynthesis             c. Osmosis             d. Root pressure             e. The molecules want to get high

_______ 13.  At the end of the embryo stage

                    a. All major structures have been formed            b. Basic function of all systems is possible            c. All stored food has been consumed
                    d. All of these                                                                                    e. They're already maximally annoying

_______ 14.  In many processes, tracking electron movements involve following

                    a. Light energy             b. Hydrogens             c. Oxygens            d. Carbohydrates             e. At a discreet distance

_______ 15.  Most of the ATP output of aerobic respiration happens in

                    a. The electron transport chain             b. Glycolysis            c. Krebs cycle             d. Cellulysis            e. A little ATP machine


_______ 16.  A genome database is generally used to find

                    a. Another genome             b. Gene therapy targets            c. Disease alleles             d. Homologous genes
                                                    e. Only the most romantically compatible genomes

_______ 17.   In mass spectroscopy, why do the samples have to be volatilized?

                    a. They must be broken into bits            b. They won't migrate through a gel otherwise            c. They travel through the spectroscope in gas form
                    d. They must be radioactive                                    e. C'mon, that's not even a real word!

_______ 18.  Nitrogenous wastes come mainly from

                    a. Digestion of proteins             b. Respiration of proteins            c. Digestion of lipids             d. RNA processing            e. Nitrogenous nasties


Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  In the symbiosis between humans and their anaerobic bacteria, give one benefit for each.




2.  Growth in multicellular organisms depends upon what two different process at the cellular level?


3.  Define each -
4. What are two different processes in plants that depend heavily on coevolution with non-plants?


5.  What two types of cells are hybridized to make monoclonal antibodies?


6.  In animal tissues, some are distinct because of how they are made up physically, and some are different because of their particular functions. What are two that are functionally different?


7. For an acrosome -
Where would
it be found?
its function?
8.  What is an epitope?


9. What is the primary reason that many plants use alternation of generations?


10.  Oxaloacetate is a critical molecule in a critical system step:
11. Bioinformatics is a combination of biology and what other two fields?


12. Briefly explain how part of a fungus, under perfectly normal circumstances, comes to be genetically different from the rest of the organism.


13.  What are two different types of signal ligands?


14.  What are two different media used to support protein electrophoresis?


15. What are knockout mice?


Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Give the name and function of three different types of plant tissues.






2.  Answer for respiration - Most common fuel -


Step done by ALL organisms -



Materials that can act as
terminal electron acceptors -



3.  Give the steps that repeat in the Polymerase Chain Reaction. There is not a set number, since some steps can be seen as single or double. Include all temperature changes.










4.  Give four basic steps of glycolysis. They don't have to be in-a-row consecutive, but they do need to be in proper order.








5.  Fill in the steps of transduction between the listed steps.
Receptor picks up ligand. ---->



------> Proper enzyme starts to work.

6. For the three embryonic germ layers in animals, name the layer and give one body system that is mostly derived from that layer.






7. What are the four "zones" in a typical fungus, and what is the basic purpose of each?








8. For three different types of model research organisms, give the organism (as it's commonly referred to) and give an area of basic research that they are commonly used for.







Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

When did anaerobes become "fringe" organisms? Three Points.

What's the difference between a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose? Three Points.

Lipids are high-calorie materials. Why, exactly? Three Points.

What do animals that produce uric acid have in common that connects to that particular feature? Three Points.

Why are sperm mitochondria discarded rather than allowed into the egg cell? Three Points.

In humans, what shape is a blastula (Three Points), and why? (Three Points)

Two features already in place (but recent) combined in the evolution of pollen. For Three Points Each, what were those features?

What is the "natural" use of restriction enzymes? Three Points

Where was the PCR polymerase originally found? Three Points.

Gene therapy has been successful at combating what condition? Three Points.




BI 171



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