BI 171  - Fourth Exam  - 2011

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).


Multiple Choice. 

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

Two Points Each.   NOTE: Ae@ answers are never the correct answer.




_______ 1.   In early embryos, cell division is very unequal in which group?

a.  Plants                    b.  Fungi                   c.  Protostomes                 c.  Deuterostomes

                                                e.  Is Occupy Wall Street aware of this inequality?



_______ 2.    When hydrogen atoms become H+ ions, they have been

a.   Potentiated            b.  Oxidized                c.   Reduced          d.  Radiated

e.  Criminally assaulted



_______ 3.   An acrosome is part of a

a.  Fungal hyphae                       b.  Leaf bud                         c.  Signal pathway

d.  Sperm cell                                      e.  Acro - it=s some of it, right-?



_______ 4.    A cell becomes technically haploid during

a.  Meiosis I                             b.  Meiosis II               c.  Fusion                     d.   Mitosis

e.  Its freshman year - just as an experiment, you understand...



_______5.    Typically, diseases caused by anaerobic organisms produce their symptoms by

a.  Overstimulating immune response                         b.  Invading cells

c.  Releasing toxins                                                   d.  Degrading DNA

e.  Being very mean



_______6.   What two already-existing abilities contributed to the evolution of pollen?

a.  Asexual reproduction and seed packaging

b.  Photosynthesis and root growth

c.  Flowering and animal symbionts

d.  Spore formation and distribution tubes

e.  Making cats sneeze and cars sticky



_______7.    Vultures find dead things to eat by smelling their way to the food.  This would be

a.   Positive heliotaxis                             b.  Positive chemotaxis

c.   Negative heliotaxis                            d.  Negative heliotaxis

e.  Confusing at a vampire convention




_______8.   Knockout mice are used to investigate

a.  Transduction                                     b.  Nervous system formation

c.  Specific gene function                        d.  Sleep patterns

e.  Swimsuit calendars for rodents




_______9.    Which is most likely to survive polyspermy?

a.  Bacterium                                 b.  Insect                           c.  Fish

d.  Plant                       e.  Sperms shaped like poles?  Weird!




_______10.    Electron transport chains produce a lot of
                    a.  ATP                        b.  Enzymes                             c.  Sugars
                    d.  Cells                                   e.  Noise




_______11.   Plasmids to be used in bacterial production carry genes for the production

protein and genes for

a.  Special growth                                b.  Luciferin, so they glow

c.  Extra nutrients                                d.  Antibiotic resistance

e. Never joining a labor union




_______12.   Acetyl coenzyme A acts as an intermediate in

a.   Redox reactions                                        b.  Aerobic respiration

c.   Transduction pathways                             d.  Photosynthesis

e.  Molecular labor negotiations - better wages for ions!






_______13.   Samples for mass spectroscopy must be

a.  Ionized                     b.  Turned to gas                     c.  Mixed in water

                   d.  Broken into constituents                e.  Very very bored




_______14.   Animal skeletons are primarily derived from

a.  Mesoderm only                                          b.  Endoderm only

c.  Mesoderm and ectoderm                            d.  Endoderm and mesoderm

e.  Bonyderm and shellyderm




_______15.   A very common group in group transfer potential is

a.  Steroids                                                      b.  Hydrogens                         c.  Phosphate

d.  Oxygens                                                     e.  Traitors




_______16.   Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism used mostly to study

a.  Plant functions                                            b.  Animal embryology

c.  Basic genetics                                             d.  Human diseases

e.  Swimsuit function




_______17.   Plants in hot and/or dry environments commonly

a.  Release carbon dioxide and consume oxygen

b.  Do not use water in their photosynthesis process

c.  Reproduce only every few years

d.  Do C4 phorosynthesis

e.  Are very uncomfortable and moody




_______18.   Both animals and plants have a tissue class with the main function of

a.   Meiosis                  b.  Mitosis                   c.  Forming surfaces

d.   Distributing nutrients                    e.  Helping with sniffles


Short Answer.   


Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.   What are two different contributions made by anaerobic symbionts that live in digestive systems?


2.  Give two different type of signal ligands.


3.   In a food chain, what ultimately happens to most of the -




4.    Two completely different uses for carotenoids -


5.   Name three of the four fungal zones.


6.   For polar bodies -





7.  During germination, how does each grow in the right direction?





8a.  Oxygen debt happens in what tissues? 


8b.  Under what conditions?


9.    Give two different examples of functions that might be performed by HOX genes.


10.  What are two different materials that can act as terminal respiratory electron acceptors?


11.  Bioinformatics involves biology and what other two disciplines?


12.   The three levels, in order, of a classic food chain -



13.  Give an example of how apoptosis can contribute during fetal development.




14.  Nitrogenous wastes occur in what three basic forms?



15.   What causes reradiation from an atom?




16.   What ecology-based advantage is associated with metamorphosis?




17.  Electrophoresis separate molecules by what two factors?




Long Answer.  
Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.


1.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list

Violet.  X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue. Ultraviolet.


High Frequency                           \                  Visible Range                         /       Low Frequency

                      *                       *   /    *           *                                      *     \     *



2.   Give the name and function of three different types of plant tissues.  






3.   Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -






4.   Fill in the steps of transduction between the listed steps.
Receptor picks up ligand.    ---->





Proper enzyme starts to work. 

5.   Give four basic steps of glycolysis.  They don=t have to be  in-a-row consecutive, but they do need to be in proper order.  




6.   For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or materials input and output.
First Step -



Input -
Output -
Second Step -



Input -
Output -
7.   Briefly explain how each type of molecule is used for respiration energy.

Lipids -



Proteins -



Starches -




8.  Give the steps that repeat in the Polymerase Chain Reaction.  There is not a set number, since some steps can be seen as single or double.  Include all temperature changes.







Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.  Three Points each unless otherwise stated.


Crossing over is involved in explaining one of the classic mysteries of evolution.  What was that mystery?


What do some plants do with their polar bodies?



There are two photosystems, P700 and P680.  What do the numbers represent?



Why is it called lactic acid?



How did the first land plants typically their nitrogen needs met?



Why is a human blastula dome-shaped?



What term shows up in virtually every biological Kingdom but applies to different things in each?



Vaccines that use extracted antigens often run into what problem?




Why might forensic DNA analysis be less reliable than claimed?






Making monoclonal antibodies involves fusing body cells with cancer cells.  Why cancer cells?  Three Points.





Other than humans, what important genomes have been doneTwo Points Each.






BIO 171



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