BIO 171 - Fourth Exam - 2015

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1. Why is it thought that the development of DNA was a fairly early development in
                                the history of Life on Earth?

                a. It can be found in the oldest fossils        b. Only DNA could have been the first "living" molecule
                c. Every living thing known uses it            d. It isn't - DNA is obviously a recent development
                                e. As far as I'm concerned, history stops at my birth

_______ 2. Introns and exons are aspects of

                a. Taq primers         b. Messenger RNA        c. Migration bands         d. Gene therapy
                                                    e. Weird door signs

_______ 3. Which would be a type of "blockbuster drug"?

                a. AIDS cure         b. Arthritis treatment         c. AIDS vaccine        d. All of these
                                        e. Something that treats busting of blocks

_______ 4. What part of a population really changes during evolution?

                a. Gene pool         b. RNA types        c. Organelles         d. Environment
                                            e. Where they order their pizza

_______5. Restriction enzymes

                a. Affect nuclear access         b. Shut off metabolic pathways        c. Limit PCR amplification
                d. Defend against viruses                    e. Are like bouncers, but teensy

_______6. Chaperonins and prions are involved in

                a. Spindle production        b. Protein folding        c. Processing of messenger and transfer RNA
                d. DNA replication                        e. Most really dull parties

_______7. When a small group migrates away and has only those alleles present to pass on to
                            their descendants, this is

                a. Genetic drift         b. Founder effect         c. Mutation        d. Habitat isolation
                                                                e. Tough luck

_______8. A layer of rusty sediments in the ancient fossil record marks when

                a. Life went onto land             b. Photosynthesis spread            c. People first appeared
                d. Dinosaurs disappeared                        e. Atlantis' junkyards sank

_______9. Factors that could produce mutations were first studied extensively in

                a. Mice         b. Arabidopsis         c. Bacteria        d. Drosophila         e. Godzilla

_______10. Position effects are associated with

                a. Early embryo layout                             b. How easily genes can be expressed
                c. Where new genes come from                d. Where codons start working
                                        e. Those aches you get in the morning

_______11. The early oceans had an oily "scum" on the surface that contributed to the development of

                a. Protocells         b. DNA         c. Digestion        d. Flotation         e. Politics

_______12. Transfer RNA (tRNA) does its work

                a. In a ribosome         b. In the nucleus        c. In the nucleolus         d. In the phospholipid bilayer
                                                                e. At the bus station

_______13. How a newly-discovered gene sequence can be "matched" to one in a genome database
                                    is a problem addressed by

                a. Electrophoresis         b. Analogy         c. Line-by-line coverage        d. Bioinformatics
                                                        e. The sequence elves

_______14. What procedure uses molecules that are volatilized and sent down a tube?

                a. Fluorescence         b. DNA electrophoresis        c. Mass Spectroscopy         d. Gas pressure analysis
                                        e. I can think of one guys do when they're really drunk...

_______15. Promoters and enhancers are active in

                a. Gene expression         b. DNA replication        c. Virus function         d. DNA amplification
                                                                e. Selling new music makers

_______16. Cells actively producing a particular protein are necessary for

                a. Southern Blot and PCR                    b. Knockout mice and monoclonal antibodies
                c. Fluorescence and Southern Blot        d. All of the above
                                        e. Isn't that like, just, necessary?

_______17. The most likely "staging areas" for the invasion of the land from the water:

                a. Fresh water and hydrothermal vents                b. Fresh water and tidal zones
                c. Tidal zones and hydrothermal vents                d. Fresh water and underground
                                                            e. Atlantis and Venice

_______18. Monoclonal antibodies involves a culture of hybrid

                a. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes                 b. Human cells and mouse cells
                c. Human cells and Drosophila stem cells            d. Spleen cells and cancer cells
                                        e. That is not a culture I want to donate to

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. For Neurospora -
What was its
basic research
What genetics
discovery was
made with it?

2. Give two weaknesses / drawbacks for testing on cell cultures.


3. What is one basic evolutionary strategy that has kept asexual reproduction a viable process?

4. Why is mitochondrial DNA considered preferable to nuclear DNA in evolutionary studies?

5. What is an epitope?

6. Briefly explain why addition or deletion point mutations are potentially worse than substitution point mutations.

7. According to theory, when the Earth's "living things" were just big organic molecules, what are two abilities those molecules had to have to lead on to current forms of life?


8. Briefly, what is the panspermia?

9. For a low chromosome number, compared to a high chromosome number -


10a. What sort of organism helpers were probably essential to plants being able to move onto land?

10b. What function do these organisms perform for the plants?

11. Give two general biological circumstances where one can find alternation of generations.


12. How do pharmaceutical companies use patent law to justify high prices for prescription drugs?

13. What are two different ways that radiation exposure can bring about cell deaths?


14. Histones are remarkably similar across broad spectra of organisms. Briefly, why?

15. The two types of genetic redundancy are associated with what two processes?


16. Biologically, what is a meme?

17a. What's the purpose of a marker gene?

17b.What is commonly used as a marker gene?

18. In strains of knockout mice, the individual mice are close to genetically identical. How is this acheived?

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart here, give the coded amino acid sequence.

Starting ________________________________________________________________________________________

StrandT A C C C A A A G T A G G C A T C C A T A G G G A C T

 mRNA   __________________________________________________________________________________________



2.  Give the steps that repeat in the Polymerase Chain Reaction.  There is not a set number, since some steps can be seen as single or double.  Include all temperature changes and what's happening to the molecules.

3. Give the groups involved - relative sizes and participant types - in each stage of clinical trials.




4.  For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.

Life on

  Photosynthesis   Molecular

5. What are four different conditions that a "Hardy-Weinberg allele population" must have?



6. Two-section question on mass extinctions
6a. What step pretty much
always happens in       -
mass extinctions?
6b. Three different possible causes of mass extinctions -


7. Describe (don't just give a simple label!) four different isolating situations that can lead to the evolution of new species from the same starting group.



8. What are four different things that happen during the lab process of protein electrophoresis?



Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Why are most genetic diseases recessive? Three Points.

When does linkage get broken? Three Points.

What is a phage? Three Points.

Rosalind Franklin was a critical contributor to the work of Watson and Crick, yet was largely ignored. Why? Three Points for each valid reason.

The current definition of epigenetic doesn't even fit inside the original definition. Why not? Three Points.

One of our human chromosomes used to be two - how do we know? Two Points for each piece of evidence.

Herbalists consider pharmaceutical researchers' criticisms of them unfair - what reason do they often give? Three Points.

Why is it called "Southern" blot? Three Points.

"Ancient Chinese medicine" was invented by the Chinese government - why? Three Points.

What is the typical homeopathy treatment? Three Points.

In gene therapy, what is the primary obstacle? Three Points.


BI 171



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