BIO 171 - Fourth Exam - 2018

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.

Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1. The first known oncogenes turned out to be

                a. Proofreaders         b. Tumor suppressors        c. Apoptosis initiators         d. Mitosis initiators
                                    e. Not as friendly as they first appeared

_______ 2. Position effects refers to where _____ are.

                a. Chromosomes         b. Centromeres         c. Ribosomes        d. Genes
                                                        e. The things I studied

_______ 3. The “Snowball Period” changed life on Earth by

                a. Bringing in water         b. Concentrating primordial soup        c. Increasing competition
                d. Stopping chemosynthesis            e. Making it all about winter funtime

_______ 4. Why is it almost unheard of to have a muscle cancer?

                a. Muscle cells don’t mutate                       b. Muscle cells use the “wrong” genes
                c. Muscle cells don’t divide                         d. Muscle cell repair is too strong
                                        e. Muscle cells can’t even spell cancer

_______5. Which is being described as gene editing?

                a. Polymerase chain reaction         b. CRISPR        c. Knockout strains         d. Fluorescent tagging
                                        e. Whatever Gene does in his word processor

_______6. In a double-stranded chromosome, a telomere can be found

                a. Holding each strand together        b. Side-by-side - it is the name of the strands
                c. Only during telophase                  d. At the end of each strand
                                e. Only if you really really want to find it

_______7. Which cells are hybridized to produce monoclonal antibodies?

                a. Bone marrow & skin         b. Spleen & cancer        c. Lymphoid & liver
                d. Pancreas & skin                        e. Mono & clonal

_______8. The famous “plant problem” involves

                a. Food chains         b. Environmental toxins        b. Beginnings of Life
                d. The nature of sunlight        e. They’re going to rise up and choke us in our sleep

_______9. Checkpoint inhibitors are active in

                a. Translation         b. Transcription         c. Plasmid transfer        d. Cancer
                                e. That big wall they’re maybe building

_______10. Chaperonins are involved in

                a. Splicing mRNA         b. Carrying tRNA        c. Shaping proteins         d. Fixing mutations
                                                        e. Spoiling intracellular parties

_______11. Chemotherapy cocktails involve

                a. Different targets together         b. Different cancers together        c. Reduction of side effects
                d. Different stages together                e. A little relaxation. And ethanol toxicity.

_______12. An anticodon would be on which molecule?

                a. Amino acid         b. DNA         c. messenger RNA        d. transfer RNA
                                    e. Sounds like something to stop a cough

_______13. Developing antibodies using “pure” antigens may not work due to issues with the

                a. Prosthetic groups         b. Specificity         c. Epitope        d. Alleles         e. Antiantibodies

_______14. Non-sex chromosomes from gendered parents may still be naturally different due to

                a. Imprinting         b. Nondisjunction         c. Translocation        d. Hybrid vigor
                                                    e. Being pink or blue

_______15. Aneuploidy is a common feature of cancer cells, where they

                a. Mimic regular body cells                                            b. Have the wrong number of chromosomes
                c. Use regular body systems to help them spread             d. Refuse to differentiate
                                            e. Wear a hat and use makeup as a disguise

_______ 16. Living things most likely colonized the land from

                a. Swamps and forests         b. Beaches and islands        c. Swamps and islands
                d. Tidal pools and shallow fresh water            e. Their waterfront properties

_______17. Stroma is

                a. The working area around active ribosomes
                b. The zone associated with the prokaryote chromosome

                c. Where the first “living” molecular complexes collected
                d. The matrix of a tumor
                e. A word to be said in a deep voice

_______18. No matter what the cause, any mass extinction event must

                a. Lower the average temperature        b. Raise the average temperature
                c. Eliminate most of the plants             d. Block out a significant amount of light
                                e. File the proper paperwork before beginning

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Name two different “aids to transcription” that are on the chromosome but not part of the transcribed gene.


2. Two pre-existing systems / abilities that may have combined to form the first photosynthesis system-


3. Why might a no carbohydrate diet be a possible way to deal with cancer?

4. What two areas of well-funded medical research are focused on telomerase?

5. When bacteria are exposed to plasmids with useful genes, how is it determined that they have actually picked them up?

6. The two materials that make up chromatin -


7. Electrophoresis separates proteins based upon what two molecular features?


8. In prokaryotes, genes on the chromosome often follow a pattern that rarely shows up in eukaryote chromosomes. What is that pattern?

9. Briefly explain the relationship between closely-related individuals mating and lethal genes, including why they are “lethal.”

10. Two different possible causes for mass extinctions -


11. Of the point mutations, an addition is much worse than a substitution. Explain why.

12. What is the typical epigenetic modification for -


13. What is panspermia?

14. Why does radiation treatment for tumors involve multiple simultaneous (or nearly simultaneous) beams?

15. Two features the very first “living systems” had to have:


16. Two features the first “modern” living systems eventually had to have:


17. Why is non-coding DNA used in molecular clocks?

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1. Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using this chart, give the coded amino acid sequence.
Strand       T A C A G C C A A C T G G G C C C G T A G A C G A C T

mRNA _____________________________________________________________________


2. Give one specific example of something that can go wrong in each category to initiate cancerous changes.

3. Give two of each category for continuing a science education through graduate school.



4.  For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.


  Life on

5. Give the steps that repeat in the Polymerase Chain Reaction. There is not a set number, since some steps can be seen as single or double. Include all temperature changes and what's happening to the molecules.

6. Give one type of data collected in each stage of clinical trials.

7. What are three different things that happen particularly during metastasis?


8. For mass spectroscopy -
Involves separation of molecules by -
Basic process –

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Which type of protein relies a lot on RNA splicing during production? Three Points.

Chaperonins turned out to be essentially the same as what other already-known proteins? Three Points.

Two chimpanzee chromosomes are equivalent to one human chromosome. Give one way that we know this. Three Points.

What is significant about our local “Petrified Gardens”? Three Points.

What was the first indication that there had been a Snowball Period? Three Points.

Terrestrial animals that become aquatic are almost never active breathing water. Why? Three Points.

What is Nemesis? The thing, not the definition. Three Points.

What does undifferentiated but not undifferent mean? Three Points.

What major advantage does science graduate school have over places like medical schools? Three Points.

How are generic drugs often different from the originals, other than price? Three Points.

Why is it called Southern blot? Three Points.


BI 171



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