BI 173 / BIO 173 - Animal Biology - Spring 2012

Old Exams

Lab Practicum Study Sheet


Professor M. McDarby Office: C-231-N,  LAB C-239.


Office (or Lab) Hours:
MWF, 10 - 11 AM; Tu, 11 AM - 12:30;  Th 12:00 - 12:30.
         Look first in the lab. Try other times on your own luck or by appointment.

Telephone: 762-4651, office extension 8970, lab extension 8864*. 
                                      Has Voice-Mail.
Not during lab classes, please - Monday, Tuesday, Thursday 2-5; Tuesday, 8-11.


Lectures: Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 9 - 10 AM, C-108.

Laboratory: Monday, 2 PM - 5 PM, C-239.




               OLD EXAMS ONLINE (with Keys)






About the Course...
        The Book 
                       Course Objectives
                       Important Dates
                       Attendance & Make-Up Policies
                       Lecture & Lab Schedule
Research Papers
                       General Information
                       Proposals for the Papers
                       Problems and Extensions
                       Overall Format
First Page / Title Page
                               Reference Page
                                       Paper Sources
                                       Internet Sources
                                       Other Sources
Common Mistakes
                       Marking Deductions




About the Course...


Animal Biology, BI 173 / BIO 173, is designed as a low-level, introductory course for students preparing for academic majors in the sciences or other technical fields. With BI 171, it completes a first-year biology majors' introductory set.  This course is set up in two sections: first, an overview of the life functions and structures found in animals, then a brief survey of the major animal phyla, focusing on major functional and structural differences that distinguish one from the others. In many ways, this is a "Big Picture" course - that means that you should not panic when looking at the lecture schedule. Yes, we will cover almost every chapter in a very thick book, but most of the coverage will be very shallow, limited to lecture topics. On the other hand, the course has also been organized to prepare students for university upper-level science courses, so do not expect it to be too easy - the lecture formats, exams (including lab practicum), and research papers, which focus on the nature of scientific research, are all structured to give you a broad preparation of basic biology.

Outcomes include these as well as the SUNY General Education Learning Outcomes.

Link to FMCC Catalog Description.      This course fulfills the SUNY Education Guidelines for Natural Sciences.



The Book:

Zoology, by Stephen A. Miller & John P. Harley, 6th Edition.  2005, McGraw-Hill.   This purchase is optional.



Course Objectives:

When you have successfully completed this course, you should have an overview understanding of the processes that go on in animals and the various structures that can be used for those processes. You should know all of the major and almost-major phyla of animals, and what makes each group distinctive from the others. You will be familiar with evolutionary processes in general and you should understand how such processes shaped the groups. You should also increase your biology vocabulary and general understanding of basic biological processes. This course should give you the foundation knowledge to go on to any more specific zoological coursework, including human-oriented courses, and the academic preparation to deal with the requirements of most upper-level courses as well.   Papers will reinforce concepts of the scientific method and deal with actual researchers doing real research.



Important Dates:


Lecture Exams...
... Feb 22nd; March 14th; April 18th; May 14th.

Lab Quizzes........... February 27th and April 23rd; 
Lab Practicum Exam:
May 7th.

Research Papers...1st Proposal, Feb 6th; 1st Paper, March 5th;
                                   2nd Proposal, March 28th; 2nd Paper, April 25th.

Lab Reports........... Due by end of following lab period.





Lecture Exams
          100 Points Each   -   400 Points  -  40%

Lab Practicum Exam (1) 100 Points           -   100 Points  - 10%

Lab Reports (12)             20 Points Each     -   240 Points  - 24%

Lab Quizzes (2)               20 Points Each    -     40 Points  -   4%

Paper Proposals (2)         10 Points Each    -     20 Points  -   2%

Research Papers (2)        100 Points Each  -    200 Points -  20%


Notice that the course grades add up to 1000 total Points, so each 10 Points gained (or lost) is the equivalent of 1% of your final grade, which will be figured this way:







90 & up


891 & up

74 - 76


731 - 760

87 - 89


861 - 890

70 - 73


691 - 730

84 - 86


831 - 860

60 - 69


591 - 690

80 - 83


791 - 830

59 &


590 &

77 - 79


761 - 790

"D" is considered passing, but often only "C" or higher are accepted as transfer credits!

Grades may also be severely affected for students violating FMCC's Academic Integrity Policy.




Attendance & Make-Up Policies:


Lectures are not marked for attendance per se, but exams derive much more from the lectures than the textbooks, so it is extremely difficult to do well if you miss many classes. Laboratory classes all have associated marked reports, so missing them will lead to lost points. Make-ups are usually possible if set up immediately - several labs use perishable materials and may not be available if you wait too long.

All marked assignments and exams are scheduled in advance and those dates are on these sheets - hang on to them and/or mark your personal calendar. Exam conflicts (including lab quizzes & practicum) may be easily resolved as long as they are brought up prior to the exams - call or see or at the very least get a message (with a return phone number) to Mr. McDarby as soon as you know that you may miss a date! Resolutions are much easier if dealt with before due dates, even if only by an hour. If you leave the matter until after the exam, only medical and other emergencies with documentation will allow you to make up an exam. Make-ups must be arranged before exams are passed back, which is usually within a week of the exam.

Due materials (lab reports, proposals, papers) may be handed in past the due date, but will lose 5% per FMCC day, down to 25% for a complete and appropriately done but really late assignment. However, proposals will not be accepted on or after the due date of the paper they are for, and NO LATE MATERIALS WILL BE ACCEPTED AFTER MAY 11TH.




BIO 173 - Spring 2012 - Lecture & Lab Schedule


LINKS go to online Notes for online Lab Exercises.

Wed Jan 25 - Introduction.

Fri Jan 27 - Chap 30, 31 - Review of Basics .

Mon Jan 30 - Basics continued.
LAB 1 - Intro. 

Wed Feb 1 - Chap 2 - Review of the Cell - Page 2.

Fri Feb 3 - Chap 2 continued.

Mon Feb 6 - Chap 3 - Genetics - Page 31.
LAB 2 -
1st Proposal Due.

Wed Feb 8 - Chap 3 continued.

Fri Feb 10 - Chap 4 - Evolution - Page 51.

Mon Feb 13 - Evolution Continued.
LAB 3 - Reproduction.

Wed Feb 15 - Chap 5 Evolution etc., - Page 67

Fri Feb 17 -
Chap 7 - Classification - P 96.

Mon Feb 20 - NO CLASSES (Presidents' Day).

Wed Feb 22 -



Fri Feb 24 - Chap 29 - Reproduction Page 483.

Mon Feb 27 - Chap23 - Structure - P. 360.
LAB 4 - Blood.
1st Lab Quiz.

Wed Feb 29 - Chap 23 continued.

Fri Mar 2 - Chap 28 - Fluids - P 187.

Mon Mar 5 - Chap 26 - Circulation - P 424.
LAB 5 - Perceptions.
1st Paper Due.

Wed Mar 7 - Chap 26 continued.

Fri Mar 9 - Ch 27- Digestion & Nutrition - P 443.

Mon Mar 12 - Chap 27 continued.
LAB 6 - Ethics.

Wed Mar 14 -
--------- Wed Mar 14 - MidTerm ------------


** Spring Break - Friday + One Week**

Mon Mar 26 - Chap 24 - Nervous Coordination - P 379.
LAB 7 - Protozoa.

Wed Mar 28 - Chp 25 - Hormonal Control - Page 406.
2nd Proposal Due.

Fri Mar 30 - Chap 25 continued.

Mon Apr 2 -  Chap 34 - Behavior - Online.
LAB 8 - Cnidaria.

Wed Apr 4 - Chap 34 continued.

Fri Apr 6 -  NO CLASSES - Good Friday

Mon Apr 9 - Chap 8 - Protozoa - Page 111.
LAB 9 - Worms.

Wed Apr 11 - Chap 9 - Porifera, Cnidaria - P 127..

Fri Apr 13 - Chap 10 - Flatworms - P 148.

Mon Apr 16 - Ch 11- Pseudocoelomates - P164.
LAB 10 - Arthropods.

Wed Apr 18 -

Fri Apr 20 - Chap 12 - Mollusks - P 179.

Mon Apr 23 -  Chap 13 - Annelids - Page 199.
LAB 11 - Echinoderms.

2nd Lab Quiz.

Wed Apr 25 - Chap 14 - Arthropods - P 214
2nd Paper Due.

Fri Apr 27 -. Chp 15 - Terrestrial Arthropods - P 234

Mon Apr 30 - Chap 25 - Echinoderms - P 542.
LAB 12 - Vertebrates.

Wed May 2 - Chap 17 - Chordates - P 563.

Fri May 4 - Chap 18 & 19 - Fish & Amphibians - P 276 & 296.

Mon May 7 - Chap 20 - Reptiles - P 312.
LAB - Practicum Exam.

Wed May 9 - Chap 21 - Birds - P 326.

Fri May 11 -. Chap 22 - Mammals - P 342

Final Deadline for Late Materials

Mon May 14 (Tentative) - FOURTH EXAM




BIO 173 Research Papers


General Information

This course requires two papers, using each of the two subjects listed below. These papers will include at least four type-written, double-spaced, reasonably-margined pages of text (text does not include titles, reference lists, or empty space). Most of the paper will be made up of your own collected research on your subject, applied to your chosen topic and put into your own words..

The papers must be based upon at least four proper references, listed at the end of the paper with the format given below. Note: things like abstract compilations, dictionaries, and encyclopedias are not considered proper references - you must list them if you used them, but they will not count toward the paper's required four.

Proposals for the Papers:

It is required that, by the dates given in the course syllabus, you hand in proposals for your papers. These can be handwritten. Three important items will be in your proposals: 1) Which of the listed topics, 1 or 2, have you chosen to address? 2) What subject animal or group are you going to research, applied to that topic? 3) What two references have you found that you expect to help you write your paper? Here, you need to give specific references, but not in the full format required for the paper itself. Proposals will be returned promptly with advisory comments and sometimes reference suggestions. They may have to be redone if unclear, or with a subject that can't fit the topic. Late proposals will be accepted only up to the due date of their papers; after that, they become useless.


It is very important that your papers be proofread - the seemingly small deductions for spelling, grammar, and organizational errors can really add up in a mistake-filled paper. You can submit papers early, up to three days before the due date, for precorrection. All mistakes, including everything that would be marked on a completed paper, will be marked, and the paper will be available for you to pick up and correct. If leaving papers in the lab box or mailbox, include a note indicating that you want precorrection. Usually, there's only a day turnaround for precorrection. You can submit a paper early as many times as you wish, but after the due date, marks are final - you cannot redo a paper after the deadline has passed and it's been returned to you.

Problems and Extensions:

If you are running into difficulties, keep Mr. McDarby informed - he may be able to help. Perhaps more importantly, if he's made aware throughout the process, he may give you extra time to finish the paper, which is almost never true if the first he hears about problems is on or just before the due date of the paper!




Overall Format for the BIO 173 Research Paper:


First Page / Title Page

You can have a full separate title page, or use the top half of your first text page for the title.

The title must be specific enough to get an idea of what's in the paper clearly across to the reader.

The title must be followed by the chosen topic number in parentheses!!! See the topics list for their numbers.


Minimum four pages of text, double-spaced (leaves room for notes and corrections) - make a note if your word processor's idea of "double-spaced" looks unusually wide. Margins should not be too wide.  If your processor automatically skips lines between paragraphs, tell it not to.

Footnotes. General information or information available from multiple sources does not require footnotes, so don't overdo them. Specific (such as statistics) or controversial information, or direct quotes (which also require attribution- who's speaking, and why should we care? - in the text itself), things that you could only have gotten from particular sources (includes experimental procedures and results), do require footnotes. Format: at the end of the reference-using passage, put the last name of the lead author from your reference (your reference list at the end is alphabetized by author's last name, so a reader can easily find the full reference title if they want to). No other information is needed unless you have more than one reference from that author - then, use year of publication or second author or first words of title to specify which reference you're footnoting. References without authors can be footnoted with the source organization, or the first words of the title, followed by dots (...).

Reference Page.

NOTE: These papers require a specific science-style reference listing format!!!!!!

References are listed as follows. The entire list is alphabetized by author's last name. Make notes in your list if required information was not available.

Paper Sources: In this order: Author(s), last name first, full names, full list; Year (only) of publication; Title of actual reference; reference source if part of bigger whole, like a magazine article or a separately-written book chapter would be; Volume and Issue Numbers for a magazine, Date for a newspaper, or Publisher for a book; Page Numbers if applicable. If using a "paper" source obtained from a database, name the database; or if over the Internet, give the address and date accessed.

Internet Sources: Use ONLY sources that can be shown to be reliable! List as: Author(s), last names first, full names, full list (if no author, give the website organization; if neither, you shouldn't use the source); Year of writing and/or most recent update; Title of specific web page accessed; Web site name or supporting organization if page is part of larger site (information pages usually are); Full Internet address; Date(s) that you accessed the information.

Other Sources: Check with Mr. McDarby on formats for unusual references. Don't make assumptions!




BIO 173 Research Paper - Topics.

You must do both topics - you cannot use the same topic twice.Common theme: for both topics, you will be reviewing what sorts of research are being done on a particular species or small taxonomic group of animals (humans don't count). The difference in topics has to do with the aim of the research - essentially, whether it's pure or applied science. An important thing to remember is that you'll have to find information limited to the study of only one type of animal - sometimes very interesting animals just don't have a lot of accessible research information.  Very important:  this topic is not about the animals, it's about how biologists study the animals - you'll be reporting on study techniques, the "how" rather than the "what."

Topic 1.) "Pure Science."  This research is conducted to study animals pretty much purely for the sake of learning more about the animals.

Topic 2.) "Applied Science."  This research uses animal studies to learn information that applies well beyond the particular study animal. Examples would include things like rats used for behavior studies, mice in medicine, and fruit flies in genetics.




Research Paper - Common Mistakes.
(Doing these is wrong...)


Title is misleading or missing.

Topic Number is missing or wrong.

Paper doesn't really address chosen topic, or misses much of the topic's requirements.
Commonly, it's about the animals themselves (wrong!) rather than the study techniques used on the animals.

Organization of the paper is poor - similar things are discussed in widely separate sections. NOTE:  outline, and don't be afraid to use a word processor to move things around.

Points you've already discussed are repeated.

Plagiarism - source material is copied with no or very little attempt to put it into your own words.

Spelling and Grammar:

Overall proofreading was not done and needed to be. (Computer checkers are better than nothing, but will still miss a lot of mistakes.)

Apostrophes are not used on possessives. (Exception: possessive "its" gets no apostrophe;  "it's" is a contraction meaning "it is.")

Plurals are made by putting an "apostrophe - s" on the singular. This is very rarely correct.

Colons and semicolons are misused. (A colon sets something up, often a list; a semicolon breaks things apart a bit more strongly than a comma.)

Verbs don't refer to their nouns (singular, plural) properly, or change tense for no reason.

Confusion amongst "there/ their/ they're," or "your/ you're," or "two/ to/ too."

Effect and affect are confused. (Effect is almost always a thing, affect is a verb.)

Proper usage is "try to do whatever," not "try and do it," as most people speak.

Paragraph breaks don't make sense. (They come when you make a major subject change - you can embed footnotes inside a paragraph)

Footnotes are overused, or not used when needed, or done improperly. (See earlier section on footnotes.)

Quotations are overused (you're supposed to be paraphrasing, mostly, not copying) or are not attributed.

In quotations, periods and commas are put outside the quotation marks. (Punctuation at the end of quotations go inside the quotation marks unless putting them there would change the meaning of the quotes.)

Style results in confusion or changes for no apparent reason.

Paper isn't long enough. (Text alone has to be at least 4 pages!)

Reference format is wrong, and/or information that's supposed to be there is missing.




Research Papers Marking Deductions (in %):


First Paper

Second Paper


Topic Number missing or wrong

- 1

- 2

Topic same as first paper


- 40

Other mistakes

- 1

- 2


Omissions from topic requirements (See Topics Sheet):

Some omissions

-1 to -10

-2 to -20

Off the topic somewhat

- 8

- 10

Way off the topic

-12 to -25

-15 to -40

Topic not even recognizable

-20 to -45

-25 to -55

Length (Minimum 4 Pages of Text Required):

Within one page of minimum

- 6

- 12

Over one page short

- 15

- 25

Over 2 pages short

- 30

- 50

Spelling and grammar:

First 3 mistakes per page



Each mistake after the first 3 per page

- 1

- 2

So many mistakes as the be virtually unreadable

-4 to -40

-8 to -50

Organization is poor

-2 to -10

-4 to -20


Footnote format is wrong. (see rules above for description)


- 10

Footnote to an unlisted reference

- 10

- 20

Footnote obviously required but not present

- 4

- 8

Fewer than required number of proper references, each

- 8

- 12

Errors from required reference format, each

- 1

- 2

Listing format completely wrong. (see rules above)

-8 to -20

-15 to -40

Other problems:
Dishonesty - Plagiarism, Falsified Reference, etc

-20 to -100

Form, readability, other subjectives

-1 to -40

Exceptional content

+1 to +25




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