BIO 170  - First Exam  - Spring 2016

Links go to pertinent passages of book

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  What important stage of science often happens during the publishing phase?

                a. Funding             b. Statistical manipulation            c. Application of control test
                d. Peer review                        e. Increasing your Twitter following

_______ 2.  In terms of coding molecular bits, the ratio of DNA to protein sequence is

                a. Ten to one         b. Three to one         c. Four to one        d. Two to one
                                                        e. Something to one

_______ 3.  In a typical food chain

                a. Materials are mostly recycled but energy is mostly lost

                b. Energy is mostly recycled but materials are mostly lost
                c. Both energy and materials are mostly recycled
                d. Both energy and materials are mostly lost
                e. I think at this point I’m mostly lost

_______ 4.  Which is defined from group behavior in the natural habitat?

                a. Metabolism         b. Evolution        c. Species         d. Confounding factors

                                                    e. How viral a meme is

_______ 5.  The experimental variable should vary

                a. Between the beginning and the results                            b. Among different experimental tests
                c. Between the experimental test and the control test           d. Whenever you measure it
                                            e. Because if it didn’t, it would be an invariable

_______ 6. Radiation is particularly good at creating mutations through

                a. Disrupting the repair enzymes                b. Changing the chromosome number
                c. Breaking the cells apart                         d. Breaking DNA in many places at once
                            e. It has to be, or there’d be way fewer superheroes

_______ 7.  Which is an example of the null hypothesis at work?

                a. Experimental results do not support the hypothesis
                b. There is no way to set up a control group
                c. Testing can only be done in the field
                d. There are no good ways to explain an observation
                e. This guy named Dr. Null has an idea

_______ 8.  Populations typically evolve rapidly when

                a. They need to improve                     b. Conditions change around them
                c. There are many mutations               d. Their variation is limited
                                            e. They can get a big prize

_______ 9.  The idea that a complex system can be understood if you understand all of the parts of that system is

                a. Uniformitarianism         b. Constructionism        c. Reductionism         d. Structuralism
                                        e. Something without a name – only the bits have names

_______ 10. In which system does a “family tree” branch when important features appear?

                a. Taxodermy         b. Systematics         c. Genetics        d. Cladistics
                                            e. The branchy-features system

_______ 11. Reducing the impact of pure chance on experimental results is usually done by

                a. Changing the control test                                    b. Selecting participants very carefully
                c. Eliminating every other confounding factor          d. Using large numbers of test subjects
                                            e. Betting on the results in Las Vegas

_______ 12. The term metabolism is concerned mostly with

                a. Synthesis         b. Energy         c. Digestion        d. Breakdown
                                    e. Getting ready for swimsuit season

_______ 13. An early idea of how the environment affected natural populations came from a paper by Malthus about

                a. How new, needed traits appear             b. Extinction events            c. Overpopulation
                d. Artificial selection                e. The environment, and effects it can have on populations

_______ 14. The confounding factor associated with postmodernism is

                a. Artifacts         b. Chance        c. Reproducibility         d. Bias        e. Is a post really that modern-?

_______ 15. Researchers connect fossils to living groups using mostly

                a. Radioactive dating         b. Analogy        c. Homology         d. Genetic analysis
                                                        e. A really big dartboard

_______ 16.  Genetic redundancy can help explain

                a. Why many systems use the same alleles
                b. Why many systems use the same enzymes
                c. How new genes can appear without losing old ones
                d. Why pea plant genes assort independent of each other
                e. Why the politicians all sound alike

_______ 17. Looking at cells through a microscope is a type of

                a. Control test         b. Field test        c. Indirect observation         d. Direct observation
                                            e. Odd way to avoid an argument

_______ 18. This term is used when someone thinks a classification group is wrong-

                a. Polyphyletic         b. Non systematic        c. Monophyletic         d. Confounding        e. Stinky-poo

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  For the types of living things found most commonly as fossils, give two different features / circumstances they lived in they had when they were alive (other than basic life features).


2.  What is the basic idea of “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”?

3.  For each, give one weakness for using -

4.  Briefly explain how sexual selection works in an asexual species.

5.  Briefly explain how convergent evolution works.

6.  What are two different “features of Life” that typically are not found in viruses?


7.  Briefly explain why the placebo effect is an artifact.

8.  Put, in order, the three levels of a typical food chain.


9.  What, technically, is a gene?

10a. What widely-accepted idea was challenged by Redi’s experiment?

10b. What specific change was Redi trying to show didn’t happen?

11. In disagreements about classification, what are scientists -

12.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest: Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subfamily, Superclass.
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

13. In a double-blind drug test, what two different groups are blinded?


14. What feature would make a species colonial?

15. For a low chromosome number, compared to a high one, give one specific -


16. Briefly explain how hybrid vigor works.

17. The two major advantages of quantitative data over qualitative data:


18. Alfred Russel Wallace is now mostly known for what contribution to the history of evolution science?

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.





2.  Give the following for sexual reproduction -
compared to asexual
compared to asexual

3.  Two different processes that take some energy from the environment to make chemical bond energy in fuel molecules -
Name of Process Type of environmental energy used by each named process -



4.  What are four basic features that all living things are supposed to have?



5.  Give two different rules that apply to each specifically in binomial nomenclature:

6.  Put these in order so that each later level contains the earlier ones: Community, Ecosystems, Individuals, Populations.


7. For four different discoveries in the history of genetics, give the people or model organisms involved and the discovery.





6.  Give a simple progression, according to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).
The environment around a population changes
The population can now be considered a new species.

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Why is variation such an important feature of groups? Three Points.

For many discoveries reported in the internet, what important step has not happened? Three Points.

Why should the word proof (or prove) not be used for scientific results? Three Points.

How can one person’s experimental results be another person’s observation? Three Points.

For triple-blind tests, what group is added? Three Points.

What turned out to be wrong with the aluminum produces Alzheimer’s experiment? Three Points.

How can ethics be a confounding factor? Three Points.

Why is the classification guy known as Linnaeus if that wasn’t his name? Three Points.

Some living things live in “extreme” environments. For Two Points Each, what are examples of types of such environments?

Why was Darwin hired onto the Beagle? Three Points.

Why are the vast majority of traits multiple-gene traits? Three Points.

Why did Rosalind Franklin probably not get the credit she deserved? Two Each.


BIO 170

Michael McDarby


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