BIO 170  - Second Exam  - 2019




Multiple Choice. 

            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 

                        Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.



_______ 1.  Applying sterilization techniques to surgery was first done by

                        a.  Pasteur                  b.  Cohn                        c.  Lister

                        d.  Koch                          e.  Past Doctor Surgeon-Guy



_______ 2.  A near-extinction event can produce a

                        a.   Mutational threshold                     b.  Bottleneck effect

                        c.   Sporation effect                            d.  Weinberg threshold

                                                            e.  Lot of anxiety



_______ 3.  Reradiation generally causes changes in

                        a.  Frequency                  b.  Wavelength                     c.  Energy levels

                        d.  All of these                e.   People’s happiness with “used” on ebay



_______ 4.  In the modern synthesis, evolution produces changes in

                        a.  Mutations               b.  Average individuals           c.  Allele ratios           

                        d.  Populations                        e.  Hairstyles



_______5.  Production of single-species microbe cultures was a technique developed by

                        a.  Cohn                       b.  Pasteur                   c.  Lister

                        d.  Koch                                  e.  My great-grandma



_______6.  Which supplies plants stems with structural support?

                        a.  Rhizoids                 b.  Mucopolysaccharides                     c.  Protein struts

                        d.  Central vacuoles                 e.  What about emotional support?




_______7.  Plants mostly use human-digestible starches for

                        a.  Storage                   b.  Respiration             c.  Structure

                        d.  Photosynthesis                   e.  Cheating on diets




_______8.  Alternation of generations is a common process in

                        a.  Prokaryotes             b.  Fungi                      c.  Eukaryotes

                        d.  Parasites                             e.  Generations that…altern?




_______9.  Almost all land plants use symbionts for

                        a.  Aerobic respiration                        b.  Nitrogen fixation

                        c.  Immune defense                            d.  Photosynthesis

                                                e.  Evading taxes




_______10.    Bacterial cultures are commonly grown with what nutrient-infused material?

                        a.  Gelatin                                            b.   Starch sheeting

                        c.  Saline solution                               d.   Special plastic

                                    e.  Whatever’s lining my nasal passage




_______11.   Sugars from photosynthesis would be transported in

                        a.  Rhizoids                 b.  Xylem                    c.  Sporophytes

                        d.  Phloem                               e.  Cute little packets




_______12.   DNA forensics became a widely-useful technique with the development of

                        a.  Polymerase Chain Reaction                       b.  Human Genome Project

                        c.  Epigenetics applications                             d.  Molecular clocks

                                                e.  The CSI television empire



_______13.   Which is in opposition to root pressure?

                        a.  Osmosis                  b.  Gravity                   c.  Cell walls

                        d.  Transpiration          e.  What are the roots being pressured to do?



_______14.  Early sterilization techniques could be unreliable because they often

                        a.  Produced dangerous toxins                        b.  Mutated the targets

                        c.  Did not affect spores                                  d.  All of these

                                                e.  Produced musical side effects



_______15.   Most marine algae have a color that can be connected to

                        a.  Water mineral content                               b.  Fresh water content

                        c.  Season                                                        d.  Depth

                                                            e.  Overall prettiness



_______16.   Plants often use minerals

                        a.  For capturing of light frequencies

                        b.  Incorporated into protein molecules

                        c.  For resisting osmotic pressure

                        d.  For additional structure

                        e.  For stable investment portfolios



_______17.   Which is most likely to be picked up in a medical facility?

                        a.   Viral infection                   b.  Gram-positive infection

                        c.   Protozoan                          d.  Gram-negative infection

                                                e.   A cute intern?



_______18.   Which feature can be diagnostic for tracheophytes?

                        a.  Pollen                     b.  True roots                           c.  Sori

                        d.  Lignin                     e.  Do they get sick?


Short Answer.  


 Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.  According to the endosymbiont theory, what eukaryote abilities are connected to ancient prokaryotes that were ingested?





2.  What’s it mean if a species is monoecious?




3.  When bacteria are “tweaked” to take in and use human genes, how is it determined that they have actually picked up the genes and expressed them?




4.  What are holdfasts?

In what ecosystem would holdfasts be common?



5.  The laboratory technique called sectioning -







6.  Why do plants need their stomates to be -






7.  What “adjustment language” was added later to the cell theory?




8.  Many antibiotics originated in fungi.  Why are they making them?





9.   The evolution of the diseases carried by explorers depended on what two features of European civilization?





10. How do epigenetic modifications in bacteria follow Lamarckian inheritance patterns?





11.  For two different bacterial shape-based groups, give the term and then describe or draw the basic shape.





12.  Two totally different uses plants have for carotenoids -






13.  Why does the resolution of light microscopes “top out” at around 1200X?




14.  In what way can transpiration be reasonably called -







15.  What is the major weakness of the hypothesis linking volume-surface ratios to apparent cell size limits?




16.  What two water properties help it move up plant vascular systems?









Long Answer.  


Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.


1.  Give three different challenges any invasive microbe faces using the human body as an ecosystem.







2.  Give three sets of differences that exist between the groups -













3.  Other than the genders involved, give four sets of differences between -
















4.  What are four basic requirements, in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, that either an allele or the gene pool requires?











5.  What are the Koch Postulates for possible disease organisms?












6.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: 

Violet.  X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue. Ultraviolet.


    High Frequency     \      Visible Range                          /       Low Frequency 


                *         * /  *       *                           *  \  *  




7.  Microscopes can be split into two main groups based upon either listed feature.  For each feature, name the groups.

Nature of the

Imaging Beam




Interaction of Beam

with specimen





8.  Describe (don’t just give a term) for four different types of reproductive isolation that can occur in evolving populations.











Link to Answer Key


BONUS QUESTIONS.  Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


Other than the final product, what were the main immediate developments of the Human Genome Project?  Three Points.



What issue needed to be solved to develop high-resolution magnifying lenses?  Three Points.



What did Malpighi realize from his study of goldfish?  Three Points.    



What products did Pasteur first work with?  Three Points.



What causes Brownian motion?  Three Points.   



After a disease has gotten milder, there are often slight increases in virulence in variants.  Why?  Three Points.



What disease might have come back to Europe from the explorers?  Three Points.



What is a nosocomial infection?  Three Points.



Why would a new antibiotic not be a particularly profitable drug?  Three Points.




Why would a small population evolve much faster than a large one?  Three Points.





How can a brightly-colored fish actually be very well camouflaged?  Three Points.




BIO 170

Michael McDarby