BIO 170 - Fourth Exam - Spring 2016
Links go to pertinent passages of book.

Multiple Choice.

Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left.
Two Points Each. NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.

_______ 1.  An acid-filled stomach is used for

                a. Water recovery         b. Predigestion        c. Waste concentration         d. Breakdown for absorption
                                                                    e. Measuring stress levels

_______ 2.  In vertebrates, organizing motor commands and balance are done mostly in the

                a. Peripheral system         b. Medulla         c. Cerebellum        d. Spinal cord
                                                        e. Parts that do that stuff

_______ 3.  Critical processing of dominant senses happens in the

                a. Midbrain         b. Paleocortex         c. Medulla        d. Cerebellum
                                    e. The Sense Processing CenterTM

_______ 4.  Which are arthropod excretory structures?

                a. Antennal glands & metanephridia                     b. Malpighian tubules & nephrons
                c. Antennal glands & malpighian tubules               d. Nephrons & metanephridia
                                            e. The icky organs and the yucky organs

_______5.  The microbiome refers to

                a. Intestinal symbionts         b. Sensory preprocessors            c. Compound eye systems
                d. The first land animals                e. Um, words I was supposed to know-?

_______6.  A set of stereotyped or instinctive behaviors may be set off by a small, particular part of a
                                larger stimulus. That part is called the

                a. Stimulus segment         b. Releaser        c. Sign stimulus         d. Imprint
                   e. You mean like vomiting brings on the promise to never drink again-?

_______7.  Communication within the digestive system uses

            a. Motor neurons         b. The medulla         c. Interneurons        d. Hormones
                                            e. An old system: flip phones

_______8.  Target cells for tropic hormones might be found in the

            a. Pituitary gland         b. Hypothalamus        c. Thyroid gland         d. Spinal cord
                            e. Just look for the cells with the tiny paper umbrellas

_______9.  Static equilibrium can be thought of as a sense to detect

            a. Gravity         b. Momentum        c. Acceleration         d. Centrifugal force
                            e. Whether your clothes will stick to you or not

_______10. A dog that no longer barks when the neighbors come home has become

            a. Habituated         b. Sensitized         c. Acclimated        d. Imprinted         e. Deaf

_______11.  The speed of an impulse along an axon

            a. Changes according to stimulus strength         b. Varies with the power of the last synapse “jump”
            c. Never changes for a given axon                    d. Is reduced if directed down multiple axons
                                            e. Goes very slow during an exam

_______12.  Compound eyes are of particular use to animals that are

            a. Close to the ground         b. Radially symmetrical        c. Small         d. Sensitive to magnetism
                                            e. Not as likely to use compound interest

_______13. Among invertebrates, who are the "stars" as far as intelligence in concerned?

            a. Ant colonies and octopi             b. Starfish and spiders            c. Hydras and squids
            d. Whales and humans        e. None o' the critters is smart as us terbaccer-smokin' human beans!

_______14. Myelin is used for

            a. Converting ammonia         b. Resisting heat loss        c. Insulating axons         d. Separating brain areas
                                    e. Isn’t that some sort of old stringed instrument?

_______15. Sensing of body position is called

            a. Localization         b. Proximate placement        c. Orientation         d. Proprioception
                                                e. My body or someone else’s?

_______16. Earthworms keep themselves moist with mucus carried up from ducts connected to glands in the skin.
                                 What sort of glands?

            a. Exocrine         b. Neurosecretory        c. Endocrine         d. Submandibular
                    e. This would be much easier if "mucus" was one of the choices...

_______17. Allergies tend to be more dangerous depending upon

            a. The nature of the allergens                                    b. How the allergens are introduced into the systems
            c. How the response system has been “trained”          d. Which cells are the first responders
                                        e. How much fun you find the medications

_______18. Ultimate causation addresses

            a. The last hormone in an endocrine sequence
            b. How decisions are coordinated in the brain

            c. The relationship between metabolic rate and oxygen usage
            d. The evolutionary development of a behavior
            e. Something that sounds really important

Short Answer.

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.

NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.

1.   What are two different adaptations that tend to maximize oxygen use in poikilotherms?


2.  What are the two defining features of vitamins?


3.  Under what circumstances are an animal's weapons most likely to be nonlethal?

4.  What are the first two steps of an action potential / nerve impulse? (the action potential itself)


5. What are two types of basic sensory perceptions, found in other animals, that pick up information that humans cannot?

6.  Give the name and one basic function for each of the classes of white blood cells.



7.  The hypothalamus has major functions in two different body systems. Give one function for each system.


8.  The evolution of processing in vertebrate brains is thought to have gone through three major types. They are:

________________       -------->       __________________      -------->      _________________

9.  Blood sugar levels are too high. Briefly explain how an endocrine feedback system would get that under control, then shut off. You do not need to name specific hormones or structures - general terms are okay here.

10. For a gill countercurrent system, draw the basic set-up and show the relative concentrations and how the transfer occurs.

11. What is peristalsis?

12. What are two senses that involve chemoreceptors?


13. Clotting of blood is triggered by what factor?

14. What two different ecosystems were most likely the “staging areas” from which aquatic species evolved into terrestrial species?


15. Briefly explain the necessity of digestive emulsifiers like bile.

16. What is ethology?

Long Answer.

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.

1.  Give three different advantages for each -


2.  For the three different animal excretory products, name the product and then give a circumstance associated with excretion of that particular product.




3.  What are three different adaptations found in poikilotherms that they use in particularly cold environments?


4.  Vertebrate blood carries several different types of regulatory molecules. Give three different functions done by such molecules.


5.  Give three sets of differences between the typical central nervous systems of...
Invertebrates Vertebrates




6.  What are the three major adaptations made by organisms to counteract the osmotic problems of a freshwater environment?


7.   For three basic types of feeding (not the subtypes of one of the basic types!), give the type and an example of an animal that feeds that way.




8.  Processing of nitrogenous wastes almost always follows three steps. Give them in order.

Link to Answer Key


 Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.

Why is there dissolved nitrogen in the blood? Three Points.

When terrestrial animal species evolve to being aquatic, they do not develop the ability to breathe water. Why? Three Points.

Why are they called “flame cells”? Three Points.

What was found by breaking the backs of hibernating woodchucks? Three Points.

What is the current hypothesis about the function of the appendix? Three Points.

What is an odd symptom of a hookworm infection? Three Points.

What is unusual about the nerve impulses in a nerve net? Three Points.

What exactly tends to produce age-related nearsightedness? Three Points.

What’s the simplest object to get attacked by a stickleback fish? Three Points.

Why would an animal be capable of communicating in a mode that it and others of its species cannot actually sense? Three Points.


BIO 170

Michael McDarby


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