BIO 170  - Fourth Exam  - 2021

 Multiple Choice. 

            Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. 
Two Points Each.   NOTE: “e” answers are never the correct answer.


_______ 1.  The main difference between endocrine and exocrine glands is based upon
                            a.  The main tissues involved                  b.  The secretion molecules
                            c.  How secretions leave                        d.  What secretions affect
e.  It’s always who they know...and money

_______ 2.  What term applies to the thing that “sets off” stereotyped behavioral responses?
                            a.  Releaser                                 b.  Initiator               c.  First stimulus
                           d.  Generator                           e.   The whack-upside-the-head factor


_______ 3.  Coevolution is a classic process in
a.  Food webs                 b.  Interspecies relationships            c.  Territoriality
d.  Osmotic regulation                         e.  Buddy movies

_______ 4.  Which vertebrate brain structure does most of the metabolic monitoring?
                            a.   Thalamus                                b.  Medulla             c.  Paleocortex
                       d.   Hypothalamus                               e.   Brainland security

_______5.  Which is not generally controlled with hormones?
                            a.  Nutrient levels                       b.   Oxygen levels                c.  Dilution levels
                d.  Inflammation levels              e. At a certain age, isn’t everything hormonal?


_______6.  A nephron would be
                            a.  A vertebrate excretion structure                b.  Used in general movement
                            c.  Supporting a gill                                      d.  Holding immunoglobulins
e.  Another one of those words that only looks familiar

_______7.  Coordination is specifically processed in the
a.  Nerve cords                        b. Ganglia                   c.  Cerebellum
d.  Medulla                              e.  Twisty bits

_______8.  A dog stops barking at the mail delivery – this is probably
a.  Habituation             b. Adaptation              c.  Sensitization
            d.  Environmental tolerance                e.  It’s stuck on Netflix

_______9.   Stereotyped behavior can be used to
a.  Initiate mating                          b.  Communicate aggression
c.  Orient migration                       d.  Any of these
            e.  Use a dating app – but should it?

_______10.  “Why do birds migrate?” is ______;  “How are they deciding where to go?”
                                        is ________.

                            a.  Evolutionary behavior...environmental behavior
                            b.  Final stimulus...intermediate stimulus
                            c.  Progressive hypothesis...immediate hypothesis
                            d.  Ultimate causation...proximate causation
e.  Kind of if they use GPS

_______11.  Why would an animal have multiple enzymes that do the same thing?
                            a.  They work at different depths                   b.   One is the “back up”
                            c.  They work at different temperatures         d.   They work at different ages
e.  Someone didn’t file the paperwork correctly

_______12.   Control in endocrine systems usually involves
                            a.  Negative feedback                         b.  Up switching
                            c.  Positive feedback                          d.  Down switching

                                  e.  Many complex legal documents

_______13.  Hydrolysis is a critical process in
a.  Heat exchange                    b.  Osmotic control                 c.  Excretion
                           d.  Digestion                            e.  Something critical

_______14.  An animal that eats dirt or sediment would be a
                            a.   Compost feeder                 b.   Suspension feeder             c.   Deposit feeder
d.   Secondary feeder              e.   Creature in need of a breath mint

_______15.  The changes that an ecosystem can withstand are within its
a.  Ecoboundaries                                b.  Health parameters
c.  Efficiency                                       d.  Tolerance limits
                                    e.  Squishy zone

_______16.  Ecospecies
a.  Represent interspecies relationships
b.  Are critical to the health of a system
c.  Occupy comparable niches
d.  Are in the same taxonomic groups
e.  Are E-species and Co-species at the same time

_______17.  Osmotic conformers are in ___________ to their environment?
                            a.  Water balance only                            b.  Water and salt balance
                            c.  Water, salt, and protein balance          d.  Salt balance only
e.   A very twisted relationship

_______18.  Net primary production adjusts for
a.  Overall photosynthetic efficiency
b.  The Second Law of Thermodynamics
c.  Recycling of decomposers
d.  Energy use by producers
e.  Taxes

Short Answer.   

Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected. 

Four Points each.   Partial credit is possible.


1.  Under what two different conditions can a nerve impulse go faster?




2.  What is ethology? 



3. Vertebrate brains have evolved through what three processing stages (in order)?







4.  What are two different ways that animals deal with the osmotic potential of living in fresh water?




 5.  Give one advantage each visual system has over the other -






6.  Territoriality must strike a balance between what two factors?




7.  Why does graduate school for the sciences typically not add to someone’s student debt?




8.  What are the three excretory steps in almost all animals?





9.   What are two sections of the vertebrate forebrain?




10.  How does peristalsis work? 



11.  What is a clear advantage that an ectotherm would have over and endotherm? 



12.  The three features of typical invertebrate nerve cords:







13.   Explain why bile is necessary for efficient digestion.


14.  What are two different approaches to massed food feeding?




15.  What, in general, is a threshold effect? 



16.  What is agonistic behavior?




Long Answer.  

Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.

  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

Seven Points Each.  Partial credit is possible.

1.  Name and briefly describe what happens in the stages of a nerve impulse.











2.  List six animal senses that are picking up distinctly different types of stimuli.















3.  For basic processing in a nervous system, show the “loop” from stimulus to response, through all relevant structures.








4.  There are three major excretory products in animals.   
them, and for each give one advantage and one disadvantage.

















5.   List, in order, the five common digestive regions found along a tube system.









6.  What are five different Terrestrial biome types?









 7.  Give three different advantages for each -

















Answer as many or as few as you wish.  You can't lose points on the rest of the exam by getting these wrong.  Partial credit is possible.


Why are they called “flame cells”?  Three Points.


What two systems use countercurrent exchanges?  Four Points. 


Why are fur or feathers insulation?  Three Points. 


Why is it generally pointless to buy “vitamin enriched” cat food?  Three Points. 


What is the message advantage found in steroid hormones?  Three Points. 


What recreational drug mostly affects the “reptile brain”?  Three Points.

How do bees know where the sun is on a cloudy day?  Three Points. 


Autism seems to be a failure in what sort of processing?  Three Points. 


Why do most aquatic animals not have structures that could be called ears?  Three Points. 


Why might an animal communicate using a sense it actually doesn’t have?  Three Points.


BIO 170

Michael McDarby