SC 135 - First Exam Spring 2011


Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.



1.   The most common point at which peer review enters into modern science happens when


_______                a.  Hypotheses are being formed                    b.  Experiments are being designed                    c.  Results are being processed

d.  Research is being published                                        e.  Everybody gets together to bother the patients




2.   In any ecosystem,


_______                a.  Materials get recycled but energy is largely lost                    b.  Energy gets recycled and materials are largely lost

c.  Energy and materials are largely lost                                   d.  Energy and materials get recycled

                                                e.  Largely?  Is largely even a word?




3.   At deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, the process at the bottom of the food chain is


_______                   a.  Respiration                       b.  Metabolism          c.  Chemosynthesis            d.  Photosynthesis                e.  Something foody




4.    Which is needed for statistical processing?


_______                a.  Conclusive data                           b.  Reproducible data                    c.  Qualitative data                           d.  Quantitative data

                                                              e.  Well, I=m guessing some sort of data...




5.   The best way to reduce the effect of pure chance on an experiment is through


_______                    a.  Many repetitions                         b.  Well-planned hypotheses                        c.  Using advanced statistics         

                                d.  Eliminating bias                                                e.  Ahhh, just ignore it - what could it hurt?




6.   Which is true?


a.  Proteins code for DNA, which does cell chemistry                 b.  DNA codes for proteins, which do cell chemistry

_______                c.  Proteins and DNA both do chemistry and coding                    d.  Proteins and DNA both do coding, but only proteins do chemistry

                                                                    e.  Huh?   What?   Huh?



7.    Which is true?


_______                a.  Organelles contain tissues, tissues contain cells                    b.  Tissues contain cells, cells contain organelles

c.  Cells contain tissues, tissues contain organelles                    d.  Tissues contain organelles, organelles contain cells

                                    e.   What is this, rock, paper scissors for crazy people?





8.   The timing of the most-used molecular clock is set by


_______                    a. Atomic charges                 b.  Fossil layers                     c.  Radioactivity                d. Point mutations

                                                                                e.  Turning the little crank in the back





9.   Life coming from non-living objects is called


_______                    a.  Null life                          b.  Spontaneous generation                c.  Special development                    d.  Special species

                                                         e.  Horror movie standard plot





10.    Prokaryotes are different from eukaryotes - prokaryotes


_______                a.  Are more complex                                  b.  Have nuclei                        c.  Never form multicelled systems

                            d.  Are the same as viruses                                        e.  Love Jersey Shore (eukaryotes love The Bachelor)





11.   The possibility that a hypothesis is wrong is covered by


_______                a.  The null hypothesis                    b.  Experimental negation                    c.  The counter-hypothesis            

                             d.  The untest                                                            e.  Everyone pointing and laughing





                    12.   The simplest viruses are


_______                a.  Cells with very few chemicals in them                                                 b.  Cells with just DNA in them

c.   Protein casings around a small DNA molecule                                    d.  Clusters of very simple cells

                                e.  Always being picked on by the better-developed viruses





Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   What are the two Ablindness levels@ in a double-blind test?


2.   What are two different things that all living things are supposed to have or do, but viruses don=t?


3.   Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subfamily, Superclass.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

4.   What does ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny mean?



5.  What makes an organism colonial?  (Not just single-celled, but any colonial)



6.   What is the current best way to decide that a group is a species?



7.   In scientific research, what are artifacts?



8.   Why are molecules like DNA easy to compare for classification studies?



9.   What are two aspects of the basic system of modern science?  (NOT details of scientific method, but general features of the whole system)


10.   What are the two different general ways that indirect observations are made?


11.   What are the levels, in order, or a typical food chain?


12.   What is one reason why embryos hold on to similarities long after later forms lose their similarities?



13a.   If someone has a dispute about how a group is classified, what are they allowed to do?



13b.  In such a dispute, what are they not allowed to do?



14.   What is the main driving force of dramatic evolutionary changes?






Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1a.   In biology, define analogous structures.



1b.  Define homologous structures.



1c.  What happens in convergent evolution?



1d.  What happens in divergent evolution?



2.   Put these in order so that later levels contain the next earlier one:  Community, Ecosystem, Individual, Population.


3.  Name four of the Six ABasic@ Kingdoms, and for each list enough traits to make it clearly different from the other five.








4.    Give the following for asexual reproduction -





compared to sexual



compared to sexual

5.  What are four basic features that all living things are supposed to have?




6.   Answer the following about classic Scientific Method:

Two features a good

hypothesis should have


Role served by the

experimental variable


Purpose of the control


7.   Give two different rules that apply to each in binomial nomenclature











Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


What is happening geologically at most hydrothermal vents?  Three Points.




What=s ATP do that makes it useful to just about every living thing?  Three Points.




What was Awrong@ with the first version of Redi=s famous experiment?  Three Points.




Why is it wrong to say that scientific testing has proven a hypothesis?  Three Points.




In the experiment where rats spent very long times at the feeding machines, what was actually being tested?  Three Points.




How will species probably be defined in the near future (what will we change to next)?  Three Points.



For the Anewer@ version of the classification system, what level has been added (Three Points), and where does it go?  (Three Points)



What group is classified using the Kingdom-type system, but isn=t actually included in the system?  Three Points.






SC 135 

Michael McDarby





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