SCI 135 - First Exam Spring 2020


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each.               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                        1.  In order to be scientifically useful, a hypothesis should

_______                    a.  Be completely logical                 b.  Lead to predictions
                                  c.  Give measurable results             d.  Be clear to everybody
                                                e.  Get you lots and lots of money

                        2.  Evolution is mostly driven by

_______                    a.  Changes in genetics                    b.  Continuous improvement
                                  c.  Changes in conditions                d.  Whatever is needed
                                                            e.  Nasty evil scientists

                        3.  Molecular clocks get their time gaps using

_______                    a.  Radioactive materials                 b.  Changes in chemistry
                                  c.  Numbers of generations             d.  DNA point mutations
                                                            e.  Tiny little stopwatches

4.   The classification system called cladistics puts its “branchings” on
                        family trees at the point of

__________              a.  Common ancestors                     b.  Critical feature appearances    
                                  c.  Changes in DNA codes              d.  New Kingdom formation
                                                            e.  Where the splits are

                  5.   Which is an example of spontaneous generation?

__________              a.  Turkeys appearing in the Northeast            b.  Bacteria spreading through a hospital  
                                  c.  New leaves growing in the springtime       d.  Rotting compost turning into slugs
                                                          e.  Isn’t that where things catch on fire-?

                  6.  Why is it a mistake to take results as proof?    (assuming a well-designed experiment)

                                  a.  You might have measured it wrong
                                  b.  Another hypothesis might explain the same results
_______                    c.  Your test might not be reproducible
                                  d.  Peer review will not support that interpretation
                                  e.  You’ll be scolded by the Science Police

                   7.  Using lots of subjects in an experiment reduces the effect from

_______                    a.  Quantitative factors                     b.  Qualitative factors
                                  c.  Artifacts                                       d.  Chance
                                                            e.  Not enough subjects

                   8.  Generally, in a food chain

__________              a.  Both energy and material get recycled          b.  Material only gets recycled
                                  c.  Energy only gets recycled                             d.  Neither energy nor matter gets recycled
                                                                             e.  Um, there’s food-?

                        9.  In an ecosystem, which is a first-level energy transformation?

_______                    a.  Photosynthesis                            b.  Aerobic respiration
                                  c.  Anaerobic respiration                 d.  Glucose breakdown
                                             e.  Whatever’s at the top of the list

                        10.  Homology in molecules is based upon comparing

_______                    a.  All of the atoms                           b.  Overall charge
                                  c.  The sequences                             d.  Their toxicity
                                                            e.  Their…bones?

                        11.  All of the energy-using chemical reactions in a system are together called

__________              a.  Reproduction                                b.  Production
                                  c.  Digestion                                      d.  Metabolism
                                                            e.  A big pile o’ stuff

                        12.   Butterflies and birds both fly with wings, but the wings’ structures are
                                                totally different, making them

__________              a.  Homologous only                            b.  Analogous only
                                  c.  Both homologous & analogous       d.  Neither homologous nor analogous
                                         e.  Ennielogous, meenielogous, minielogous, mologous...

SHORT ANSWER.   Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
            You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What is the current best definition of a species?



2.  For two of the three basic levels in food chains (consumers, decomposers, producers), tell which one you’ve picked and briefly explain its role in the chain.





3.  Give two different reasons why a hypothesis would need a field test to be tested.





4. Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subphylum, Superfamily.










5.  Briefly explain the hypothesis of ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny.

6.  A gene is a code made of DNA.  What exactly is made using the code?

7.  Briefly explain how basic respiration works in any living system.

8.  In an experiment, what is an artifact?

9.  Put this list in order so that each level contains the previous one - cells, organs, organism, tissue.





10.   Briefly explain how each would work in a human drug trial:



11.  Two different types of ways to make indirect observations (NOT looking for examples here!) -


12.  In academic science, what is the most common form of peer review?

13.  Give the definition of colonial organism.

14.  What are the two beneficial effects that asexual reproducers get from producing huge numbers of offspring?

 15.  If a scientist believes that a group is not classified properly -

What are

they easily

allowed to do?

What are

they generally

not allowed

to do?

16.   What is a basic purpose of a control test?  (Don’t give a definition here!)


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
            You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Answer for sexual reproduction -




2.  For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.





3.  Put these in order so that each later level contains the earlier ones: 
            Community, Ecosystems, Individuals, Populations.






4.  Give two different rules that apply to each specifically in binomial nomenclature:





5.  All for the most common isotope – 

How many

Number 4
Column 7

How many


How many

electrons? (Uncharged form)

6.   For viruses -

2 Features they have that are also found in all living things -





2 Features all living things should have that viruses do NOT have -







Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.

Where were environments based on chemosynthesis discovered?  Three Points.

What is the main “working fuel” of pretty much ALL living things, actually USED to supply energy when needed in cells?  Three Points.

What generally determines what the “typical” number of offspring produced at a time for a species?  Three Points.

Redi’s first experiment set-up – what did folks say was wrong with it?  Three Points.

What particularly makes a study triple blind?  Three Points.

Who was Karl von Linne?  Three Points.

What basic body form shows up in a huge number of unrelated groups?  Three Points.

What level is now considered above Kingdom?  Three Points.

Where did Mendeleev (the Periodic Table guy) start out as a kid?  Three Points.

Why did chemists invent the atomic mass / weight measurements?  Three Points.

SCI 135 

Michael McDarby