SC 135 - Second Exam Spring 2013



Links in each number connect to the pertinent sections of the online book.



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.



                        1.    Antibodies

_______                       a.  Are drugs that kill bacteria by degrading cell walls

                                    b.  Are potential invaders that the body should block out

                                    c.  Block the movement of electrons in DNA

                                    d.  Are made to attach to foreign molecules

                                    e.  Are what they start with on The Biggest Loser



                        2.   If fertilizers run off from farms to streams, they dissolve in the water in very

                                            small amounts, concentrations much lower than found in the plants

               living in the stream.  Those molecules move into the plants through

_______                       a.  Osmosis          b.  Active transport            c.  The membrane directly

                                    d.  Passive transport              e.  A need to crash on their couches


                        3.    Water is most dense

_______                       a.   At 100oC              b.  At 40oC                 c.   At 0oC

                                    d.   At 4oC                   e.  When taking biology exams


                        4.   When it is said that Life has “protein-based chemistry,” that means

_______                       a.   All of the major molecules in a cell are proteins

                          b.   All of the molecules break down to proteins

                                    c.   That everything was once proteins, but isn’t anymore

                                    d.   Everything depends on enzymes to work

                                    e.   Proteins are getting some pretty hefty royalty checks


5.   The leading hypothesis about why cells have a maximum size limit involves

_______                       a.  How far a cell can move in a day

                                    b.  How easy it is for connected cells to interact

                                    c.  The mathematical relationship between volume and surface area

                                    d.  All of these factors

                                    e.  The body image presented by the cell media


                        6.   If a molecule is saturated, it has

_______                       a.  Only carbon in it                           b.  Only single bonds

                                    c.  Only multiple bonds                      d.  Water molecules all around it  

                                                            e.  Got to get into a program 



                        7.    The phospholipid bilayer is set up with

_______                   a.  Hydrophilic phosphates facing out and in, hydrophobic lipids between

                                b.  Hydrophilic phosphates facing out, hydrophobic lipids facing in

                                c.  Hydrophobic phosphates facing out and in, hydrophilic lipids between

                                d.  Hydrophobic phosphates facing out, hydrophilic lipids facing in

                                e.  There are way too many words in this thing…if those are words…



                        8.    In sectioning, specimens would be

_______                       a.  Divided into different groups                     b.   Thinly sliced

                                    c.  Separated by barriers                               d.   Separated chemically

                                    e.  Given tickets and sent to different doors



                        9.    Molecules may be polar because

_______                       a.   Minerals may be affected by magnetic fields

                                    b.   They were first discovered active in ice

                                    c.   They take a long cylindrical shape

                                    d.   Covalent bonds are not always equal sharing

                                    e.   They’re covered in pretty white hair



                        10.  Digestion requires what type of chemical reaction?

_______                       a.  Reduction              b.  Hydrolysis                        c.  Oxidation

                                    d.  Dehydration synthesis                 e.  Burpilation



                        11.  Actin is a

_______                       a.   Protein used in movement          b.  Part of the DNA code

                                    c.   Usable energy carrier                 d.  Membrane pump

                                                e.  A thing that artistic hillbillies might do



                        12.  With dissecting microscopes, you see the surface of the specimen.

                                                What type of microscope are the dissecting ‘scopes?

_______                       a.  Reflective              b.  Refractive                 c.  Mirror

                                    d.  Scanning                            e.  Kind of alarming





Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.        What are two different types of communication proteins?


2.   Plants produce glucose for what two major purposes?


3.   In what two Kingdoms should every species have cell walls?


4.    What is a hydration shell?




5.   Give one difference set between eukaryote and prokaryote chromosomes.




6.   What are the main two imaging beam types for microscopes?


7.   Which two types of bonds are between full or partial charges?


8.   What are two basic organic molecule types that are polymers?


9.   Non-coding DNA has many different types of “bits.”  What are two?


10.  Here is a chemical reaction.  Give the general terms (do not give the names of the compounds!) here that would apply to any similar reaction.

        NADH   +   H+    +     H2O2              NADH peroxidase        >        NAD+      +    H2O


          _______________________         _______________                       __________________

11.  The two basic parts of a lipid molecule -



12.  Briefly explain how this works:  the DNA code is a 3-to-1 code.



13.  What are two features that RNA has but DNA doesn’t?


14.  There are two features of water molecules in a glass that makes it difficult for the water to evaporate?



15.  Show with letters what’s on the other DNA strand -


      G    T    A    G    C    A    T    G    T    A    A    G    C    A



16.  Specifically, what type of molecule is -






Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.   Give four rules from the Cell Theory.






2.   Give four different functions for some of the proteins found embedded in cell membranes.






3.    For the pH scale shown below, fill in the proper blanks -



               2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10    11    12    13



Name      _________________     ________________   ____________________



 Ion          _______________                                         ____________________




4.   Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.






5.   What are three different biological uses for lipids?   







6.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or  Oxygen.


                O     O     O     O     O

                        O     O     O     O

                O     O     O      O

                                O          O

7.   What are three different ways that fresh-water organisms deal with osmosis?  





Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


A block of material that was covered after the last exam was left off the very beginning of the study sheet.  What was that block about?  Three Points.



Local lakes “turn over.”  How does that work?  Three Points.



Why is “turning over” really good for the lakes as ecosystems?  Three Points.



What type of nutrients tend to prevent free radical damage?  Three Points.



When photosynthesis takes in light, where exactly does that energy go?  Three Points.



How is microscope resolution determined?  Three Points.



Leeuwenhoek is considered a critical figure in the history of microscopes, but he didn’t work on microscopes.  What did he work on?  Three Points.



One type of microscope must have  vacuum inside it.  Why?  Three Points.



Stains are good for making things visible, but they may also do what other useful thing?  Three Points.




Bacteria do something that isn’t quite sexual reproduction, but it’s somewhat similar.  What is it?  Three Points.



Why would an adaptation to resist osmosis in fresh water be equally useful for living on land?  Three Points.





Michael McDarby





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