SCI 135 - Second Exam Fall 2015
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                1.  In dehydration synthesis, the water

_______   a. Goes from the cell into the new molecules
                b. Comes from pieces of the stuck-together molecules
                c. Comes out because the new molecules are hydrophobic
                d. Is absorbed into the new material by adhesion
                e. Does stuff I don’t remember in stuff I don’t understand

                2.  If some phosphate fertilizer runs off from farms to streams, it will have a lower
than the phosphate in the plant cells, and it will wind up
the water plants by the process of

_______     a. Osmosis             b. Passive transport            c. Facilitated diffusion             d. Active transport
                                                e. Cell slurping (except with a Latin name)

                3.  If you broke down telomerase to study its bits, those bits would be

_______     a. Amino acids             b. Glycerol            c. Sugars             d. Nucleotides
                                                        e. Um, really teensy-?

                4.  Some fish evolved waterproof coverings

_______     a. To prepare for moving onto land             b. To resist bacterial infections
                 c. As an adaptation to fresh water                d. When they moved from the bottom into open ocean waters
                                e. Because everybody was talking about them on Twitter

                5.  The term associated with how clearly a microscope can focus:

_______     a. Focal length             b. Resolution            c. Intensity             d. Image density
                                            e. “How clear can this thing focus?”

                6.  When sharing is unequal in _____, ______ are produced.

_______     a. Ionic bonds...molecules                 b. Electrons...ions                c. Cohesion...adhesion
                 d. Covalent bonds...hydrogen bonds            e. Texting...fears of being unloved

                7.  Each amino acid in a protein is coded for by

_______     a. A specific enzyme                 b. 3 nucleotides                c. 5 nucleotides
                 d. One allele                                e. Some sort of weird app

                8.  A fatty acid with two double bonds is

_______     a. Hydrophilic                 b. Hydrophobic                c. Unsaturated
                 d. Saturated            e. I don’t think anyone should be called a “fatty”

                9.  Hormones may be

_______     a. Carbohydrates or lipids                     b. Proteins or nucleic acids
                  c. Carbohydrates or proteins                 d. Lipids or proteins
                                    e. The most annoying human feature

                10. Root pressure works because

_______       a. Ground water is more dilute than cell contents
                    b. Ground water is less dilute than cell contents
                    c. Ground water is equally dilute to cell contents
                    d. The rest of the plant is above ground level
                    e. Roots are always putting each other down

                11. Water is in its densest (most packed together) form at

_______       a. 0o C         b. 100o C             c. 4o C             d. -100o C
                    e. The time you realize you are MUCH too far from shore

                12. The mathematical relationship between increasing surface and volume of a
is used to try to explain

_______      a. Cohesion             b. Adhesion             c. Membrane layers
                  d. Cell size limits           e. Why I have a hangover and you don’t


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  For a use of lipids related to their being hydrophobic -

How being hydrophobic helps that –

2.  What are two different types of bits found in non-coding DNA that really are types of codes?


3.  Give two sets of differences between prokaryotes and eukaryote cells.



4.  What about a starch makes it a polymer?

5.  What (and where) is an antigen?

6.  What, technically, is a gene?

7.  Briefly explain why evaporation of water is such a good cooling process.

8.  What 2 types of proteins are involved in a nerve impulse “jumping the gap” of a synapse?


9.  Draw a diagram of the layers of a cell membrane. Label: the OUTSIDE (outside the cell), the INSIDE (inside the cell), the HYDROPHILIC LAYER(S) and the HYDROPHOBIC LAYER(S).

10. What are two different Kingdoms of Life where every species has cell walls?


11. Explain how a hydration shell works.

12a. In the laboratory, what is sectioning?

12b. Why is that sectioning done?

13. Give two sets of differences between DNA and RNA.



14. What are the names of the two main proteins found in muscle?


15. Explain how the two parts of the membrane model are supposed to work -
The FLUID part –

The MOSAIC part –


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.





2.  Microscopes can be split into two main groups based upon either listed feature. For each feature, name the groups.
Nature of the
Imaging Beam

Interaction of Beam
with Specimen

3.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.
      Sorry, could not completely receate, but you can fill in this one properly many different ways to practice.
                    O                                   O           O
          O       O           O           O
          O       O           O
                                  O                      O

4.  Give four different functions for some of the proteins found embedded in cell membranes.



5.  For the pH scale shown below, fill in the proper blanks -
            2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13
Name         _____________         ____________             _________________
Ion           _______________                                          _________________

6.  For carbohydrates -
that makes
most of them -
Two main
forms -
that make
them -

7.  Give four rules from the Cell Theory.



Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Why is so much of the atmosphere made up of nitrogen? Three Points.

Stomach acid does not break down food molecules, but it does something very important to them – what? Three Points.

Explain how our local lakes “turn over” in the autumn. Four Points.

People eat fiber foods to act as stool softeners. What interaction on the molecular level is making that happen? Three Points.

Some starches are easy to digest / break down. Why do the plants make that sort of starch? Three Points.

Why are many pesticides lipid-like molecules? Three Points.

Ant alarmones produce what two effects at different concentrations? Three Points.

What body response has weak specificity? Three Points.

What element is common in proteins but not in carbohydrates or lipids? Three Points.

Why would microscope specimens be coated in gold? Three Points.

If you sit in a tub for a while, your fingers get wrinkly. Why doesn’t the skin on your arms get wrinkly? Four Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby