SCI 135 - Second Exam Fall 2021


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each.               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer. 

1.  A microscope’s resolution would be determined by

_______          a.  How big an image can be made
                       b.  How clear a focus you can get
                       c.  How many specimens it can process per hour
                       d.  All of the above
                       e.  Local officials, after all paperwork has been done


2. In comparison to a solution with a pH of 9, one that’s pH 11 would be

_______           a.  4 times as acidic             b. 4 times as basic            c.  100 times as acidic
d. 100 times as basic                          e.  Two years older


3.  The function of a protein is directly related to its

_______           a.  Primary structure            b.  Secondary structure         c.  Tertiary structure
            d.  DNA structure                                  e.  Union membership


4.  The presence of double bonds means an organic molecule

_______           a.   Is easily ionized             b.  Will form a ring structure           c.   Is unsaturated
d.   Will also have hydrogen bonds            e.  Is really willing to commit


5. A hydration shell happens

_______           a.  Under surface tension                     b.  Around solute particles
                        c.  On the early, cooling Earth             d.  Within lipid droplets
                                  e.  When you give your turtle Gatorade


                 6.  The genetic code works with what ratio?

_______            a.  Three nucleotides for one amino acid
b.  Three amino acids for one nucleotide
c.  One nucleotide for each amino acid
     d.  One amino acid for each nucleotide
                         e.  A few here, a few there, it gets the job done 


                7.  Pheromones are what type of molecule?

_______             a.  Ionic                      b.  Carbohydrate                  c.  Lipid
d.  Protein                              e.  Smelly 


8.  Liver cells absorb sugar and make starch with them through

_______             a.  Dehydration synthesis                   b.  Aerobic respiration
                          c.  Photosynthesis                             d.   Hydrolysis
                                    e. Some complicated chemistry thingy 


9.  Which must be a polymer?

_______              a.  Sucrose              b.  Sucrase             c.  Sucranol            d.  Sucraic acid
e.  Doesn’t it have a choice?  Isn’t this America? 


10.  Water is most dense at

_______                a.  0o C             b.  1o C          c.  -100o C             d.  4o C
                          e.  Exam time 


11.  Molecules are polar because of

_______                a.  Their basic shape                          b.  Distribution of ions
c.  An external magnetic field              d.  Unequal sharing of electrons
e.  Being really, really far north...or south... 


                 12.  Lipids are generally

_______                a.  Basic                     b.   Hydrophilic                    c.  Hydrophobic
d.  All of the above                    e.  In a bad mood



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers. 

1. Briefly explain why evaporation is a cooling process. 



2.  What is the purpose of sectioning – why is it done? 



3.  What are two different biological uses for lipids?




4.  What are the functions of the two ends of an antibody molecule?





 5. What is the sequence on the other side of this DNA molecule?

C  T  A  G  G  A  T  T  A  G  C  T  C  C  T  A  A  C



6.  What, technically, is a gene?




7.  Label the following chemical reaction with the general terms for each part –


          A           +          B                        x           >            C




8.  What are two different types of non-coding DNA that are still a type of code?







9.  When a nerve impulse crosses a synapse, what two different types of proteins are involved?




10.  Give the parts (and how many of each) of a lipid molecule.





 11.  Give a real-world example of each property of water in action:





12.  What are actin and myosin?



13.  Which human body system or organ is pretty much all in the hydrolysis business?



14.  Give a set of differences between -





15.  What exactly has happened if an atom gets reduced?





Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.  For carbohydrates -

Basic formula of
simple carbohydrate:


Basic uses of starches
in plants:


Name of basic process
that creates glucose:


2.  Using the numbers of bonds as a guide, fill in the symbols for either Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen.
Not reproducible, but count how many bonds are on each box or circle...

3.  Microscopes can be split into two main groups based upon either listed feature. For each feature, name the groups.
Nature of the
Imaging Beam
Interaction of Beam
with Specimen
4.  Give four rules from the Cell Theory.



5.   Name and describe the three basic bond types.




6.  Name and give a brief description for the four levels of protein structure.





Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers. 

Why is so much of the air around us nitrogen?  Three Points. 


Sulfur sometimes appears in biological molecules, where it forms “bridges” between two other atoms.  That makes it similar to which more common element in those molecules (Two Points), because they both are in which periodic table column (Two Points)? 


The “turning over” that lakes do this time of year distributes what important material throughout the lake?  Three Points. 


What is the main chemical change that happens in the stomach?  Three Points. 


What does “pH” probably stand for?  Three Points. 


For Two Points each, what sorts of chemicals are thought to be involved in producing the damage of aging?   


What disease is caused by prions?  Three Points. 


Which type of molecule has only recently been found to have huge numbers of important functions in our cells?  Three Points. 


Why do electron microscopes have to have vacuums in them?  Three Points.






SCI 135 

Michael McDarby