SC 135 - Third Exam Fall 2009

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                1.  A karyotype involves

_______ a. Comparing cell shapes            b. Counting cell divisions            c. Comparing chromosome shapes            d. Counting organelles
                                                                                e. Folks that look like Kary

                2.  Genetic redundancy applies to

_______ a. Crossing over and substitution mutations            b. Enzyme amplification and meiosis II            c. Allele amplification and meiosis I
              d. Prokaryotes only                                                                            e. What terms I've totally forgotten

                3.  In mosaicism, cells have different

_______ a. Parents             b. Numbers of nuclei            c. Types of projections             d. Numbers of chromosomes            e. Religions

                4.  In the lab, our plant cells shrank in the heavy salt solution due to

_______ a. Osmosis into the cells             b. Attraction to salt            c. Osmosis out of the cells             d. Diffusion of salt
                                                    e. They were very well trained ahead of time

                5.  Much of a cell's RNA is stored in

_______ a. Chromosomes             b. Ribosomes            c. Endoplasmic reticulum             d. Nucleoli            e. In little plastic tubs with snap lids

                6.  Which vesicle would have digestive enzymes in it?

_______ a. Lysosome             b. Ribosome            c. Digestisome             d. Nucleosome            e. Tum-tum-osome

                7.   A zygote is ________ and divides by ________

_______ a. Haploid...meiosis             b. Haploid...mitosis            c. Diploid...meiosis             d. Diploid...mitosis            e. A weird goat...splitting

                8.  There is a much higher concentration of iodine inside thyroid cells than in the fluid around them. Iodine moves into the cells by

_______ a. Cilia             b. Active transport             c. Osmosis            d. Passive transport             e. Skateboard

                9.   Position effects influence how

_______ a. Quickly cells divide             b. Easily genes get expressed            c. Organelles work together             d. All of these
                                                                e. Well, if you want to make boy babies...

                10.  The chromosome number of prokaryotes is

_______ a. Always divisible by two             b. Always divisible by three            c. One             d. Not reliable            e. Always higher than they want to admit


                11. Radiation is most likely to damage cells that are

_______ a. Small                 b. Big                 c. Old                d. Dividing                 e. Just being wusses

                12.  Crossing over typically happens during

_______ a. Interphase             b. Meiosis I             c. Meiosis II            d. Mitosis             e. The middle of a moonless night


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What is the function of chaperonins?


2. For polyploidy -
is it?
What types
of organisms
is it found in?
3.  What is apoptosis?

4.  Put these in organizational order - organs, tissues, cells
1 2 3
5.  For a low chromosome number (compared to a high one):

6.  Define: what is diffusion?

7.  What are two different things that happen during meiosis that don't happen during mitosis?

8.  What organelles probably started as endosymbionts?


9.  Why is a deletion mutation much more dangerous than a substitution mutation?   Give a bit of explanation.

10.  Give the functions (not just the names) of two different types of vacuoles.

11.  What does genetic linkage mean?


12.   If a cell has lots of golgi bodies, what particular function is it probably performing?


13.   Cells with lots of microvilli are generally doing one or both of which particular basic functions?

14.   What is the purpose of a polar body?

15.  What are two different structures that make up cytoskeleton?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Give three sets of differences between -



2.  Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -





3.  Two different things that happen during transcription in a cell.


Two different things that happen during translation in a cell.  


4.  For the stages of mitosis (actual division phases), give the names of the phases in order and give one thing that happens particularly in that phase.

5.   Define these terms associated with chromosome structure:







6.  Given here is one side (strand) of DNA. Starting with this strand, and using the table attached to the back of the exam, show:

Starting  __________________________________________________________________________________
Strand      T    A    C    A    G    C    C    C    C    G    C    A    T    T    G    C    T    A    G    G    G    A    T    T

Messenger RNA from 1st strand


Amino Acid Sequence

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

The ability to produce a particular structure turns a cancer malignant. What structure? Three Points.

Why exactly is an extra chromosome passed to an embryo very dangerous? Three Points.

What sorts of signals can "go bad" and produce cancer cells? Three Points each.

What was the really convincing evidence for the endosymbiont theory? Three Points.

Why does a progressing cancer pretty much have to reactivate its telomerase gene expression? Three Points.

What determines whether an alligator is male or female? Three Points.

HIV escape mutants have to be able to do what two things? Three Points each.

DNA proofreading works best in organisms that fill in below . Three Points.

What disease is probably caused by prions? Three Points.












phelyalanine serine tyrosine cysteine U
phelyalanine serine tyrosine cysteine C
leucine serine STOP STOP A
leucine serine STOP tryptophan G


leucine proline histidine arginine U
leucine proline histidine arginine C
leucine proline glutamine arginine A
leucine proline glutamine arginine G


isoleucine threonine asparagine serine U
isoleucine threonine asparagine serine C
isoleucine threonine lysine arginine A
*START* /  methionine threonine lysine arginine G


valine alanine aspartate glycine U
valine alanine aspartate glycine C
valine alanine glutamate glycine A
valine alanine glutamate glycine G




Michael McDarby.

SC 135

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