SC 135 - Third Exam 2011


Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.



                        1.  A cell plate is

_______                        a.  The line of chromosomes during mitosis

                                    b.  The beginning of a new cell wall

                                    c.  The part of the DNA code that determines basic cell structure

                                    d.  The functional part of the spindle

                                    e.   A cute name used in nanobaseball




                        2.   When does the nuclear envelope disappear?

_______                        a.  Metaphase                                    b.  Telophase                         c.  Prophase

                                    d.  Interphase                                    e.   Magicphase




                        3.    Radiation will probably not damage cells

_______                        a.  That do not do exocytosis              b.   That do not do endocytosis

                                    c.  That have already turned cancerous          d.  That do not divide

                                                e.  That remember to wear their lead jammies




                        4.   A high chromosome number can be bad because it may produce

_______                        a.  All sorts of different mutations

                                    b.  Very limited variation in offspring

                                    c.  Problems during cell division

                                    d.  All of these

                                    e.  Is this some sort of PSA against being high?




                        5.    In a pond, any nitrates in the water move into algae cells, where they

 are in a higher concentration.  This movement is

_______                        a.  Active transport                          b.  Facilitated diffusion

                                    c.  Passive transport                         d.  Impermeable

                                                            e.  Only legal in a few states




                        6.   Chaperonins

                                    a.   Mark where genes are in a chromosome

                                    b.   Determine what can and can’t go through a cell membrane

_______                        c.   Connect the different types of endoplasmic reticulum

                                    d.   Get new proteins to form the proper shape

                                    e.   Is too silly to be a real thing




                        7.   In order for a tumor to keep growing, which gene needs to be activated?

_______                        a.  Enzyme inhibitor                                    b.   Telomerase

                                    c.  Apoptosis initiator                                   d.   Growth hormone

                                                            e.  The Cheetos gene




                        8.   The nucleolus is where

_______                         a.  The edge of the envelope is                   b.  Protein is made

                            c.  Chromosomes are processed                 d.  RNA parts are stored

                                                e.  Vowels go to hang out




                        9.  When a cell’s own molecules need to be recycled, they are moved to

_______                        a.  Contractile vacuoles                               b.  Peroxisomes

                                    c.  Lysosomes                                               d.  Central vacuoles

                                                                        e.  Little blue organelles




                        10.   The purpose of rough endoplasmic reticulum can be compared to

_______                        a.  Building a factory next to a major highway

                                    b.  Scraping old paint off a wood surface

                                    c.  Putting mail in an envelope to send it far away

                                    d.  Sticking a post-it note to the refrigerator

                                    e.  Ripping your face off and chewing on it




                        11.  For the labeled layers of a cell membrane -   (they work from outside in)

_______                        a.  A, B hydrophilic;  C, D hydrophobic

                                    b.  A, B hydrophobic;  C, D hydrophilic

                                    c.  A, D hydrophilic;  B, C hydrophobic

                                    d.  B, C hydrophilic;  A, D hydrophobic

                                    e.  They don’t come with tiny labels…do they?




                        12.   The mathematical relationship between surface and volume is used in explaining

_______                        a.  How proteins work                     b.  Gene expression

                                    c.  Cell size limits                             d.  Chromosome numbers

                                                e.  Why our pants don’t fit anymore





Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note:  if you answer more than eight,
only the first eight  will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   What is apoptosis?


2.   How does a prion get an infected cell to stop working properly?



3.  For the Fluid Mosaic Model, explain which part is -




4.    What are two different functions of a centromere?



5.    In chromosomes, what does homologous mean?



6.   Give two features that are different in prokaryotes than eukaryotes, including how the features are different.


7.   What are two different ways that fresh-water organisms prevent osmotic damage?


8.  During what 3 cell cycle stages can cytokinesis happen?


9.    What is a likely purpose of a cell if it have lots of -



10.  What does it mean if cells differentiate?




11.   What exactly is dangerous about HIV escape mutants?



12.   Of insertion or substitution,
        which is the more
         point mutation?
13.  The two organelles most associated with the endosymbiont theory -


14.  Briefly explain how position effect works.



15.  What are two different components of the cytoskeleton?



16.  What is polyploidy?


Why is

polyploidy so






Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   What are the four statements of the Cell Theory?




2.   Two different things that happen during transcription in a cell.  




Two different things that happen during translation in a cell.  




3.   What are four different functions that can be done by molecules embedded in a cell membrane?




4.   What are four different things that make the process of  meiosis different from the process of mitosis?




5.   Give three sets of differences, other than the genders involved, between






6.   Give 3 sets of differences between -






7.    Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart attached to the back of the exam, give the coded amino acid sequence.

Starting   __________________________________________________________________________________

Strand   T A C  C  G  T  A  G  T  A  A  A  T  A  T  G  T  G  T  T  G  C  G  C  A  T  T


mRNA     ______________________________________________________________________________________






Link to Answer Key


BONUS QUESTIONS.  Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


How can several different types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria all appear in the same place?  Three Points.


For Two Points Each, what are some actual functions of what was once called “junk DNA”?



What genes must be “turned on” in cancer cells to make them malignant?  Three Points.


What was the most convincing piece of evidence for the endosymbiont theory?  Three Points.


What does the term gender actually mean?  Three Points.


What is the purpose of Barr bodies?  Three Points.


When is sex a form of suicide for both participants?  Three Points.


When does linkage break?  Three Points.


When an embryo is “supposed” to be a hollow ball, ours is more like a hubcap.  Why?  Three Points.


Why is the nucleus the only sperm organelle that’s supposed to enter the egg cell?  Three Points.



SC 135 

Michael McDarby





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