SCI 135 - Third Exam Spring 2013

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.




On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                  NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.



                  1.    Histones are

_______                a.  Active during early embryo development

                             b.  Critical when a seen germinates

                             c.  A major part of chromosome structure

                             d.  A common 2nd messenger molecule

                             e.  What you say when you meet Mick Jagger and the guys


2.   In a double-stranded chromosome, a telomere can be found

a. Holding each strand together

b. Side-by-side - it is the name of the strands

_______                c. Only during telophase

         d. At the end of each strand

e.  Only if you really really want to find it




3.   Cells are often given structure with

_______                a.  Cilia                      b.  Nucleolus             c.  Endoplasmic reticulum

         d.  Microfilaments                         e.  Strict upbringings




                    4.   A dominant allele is, compared to a recessive allele,

_______                    a.  Usually more advantageous                b.  More likely to show up

                                 c.   Usually significantly different            d.  More likely to be passed on

                                                e.   Unlikely to be reported for abuse




                     5.   When a cell purposely kills itself, the process is

_______                    a.  Chromosion                                b.  Surfilysis

                                 c.  Recepterosion                             d.  Apoptosis

                                        e.  Usually blamed on the cell’s parents



                      6.   Which organisms would most likely have the fewest

                                                cell-division errors?

_______                    a.   Sexual, with low chromosome number

                                 b.   Sexual, with high chromosome number

                                 c.   Asexual, with low chromosome number

                                 d.   Asexual, with high chromosome number

                                 e.   Can’t we just dock their pay if they screw up? 



7.    A point mutation occurs at what Apoint@?

_______                    a.  DNA base                         b.  Centromere

c.  Chromatid                                    d.  Anaphase

e.  A mutation point



                    8.    According to a modern perspective, what really is changed

                                                by evolution?

_______               a.  Species         b.  Gene pools          c.  Protein types         d.  Overall traits

                                                         e.  Press agents



9.   Which organelles probably started as endosymbionts?

_______               a.  Nucleus & golgi body                        b.  Chloroplast & Nucleus.

                           c.  Mitochondrion & chloroplast              d.  Nucleus & nucleolus

         e.  It would help if Aendosymbiont@ rang a bell...



                    10.  Position effects are produced by

_______                 a.  Which genes are nearby                     b.  Which chromosome a gene is on

                              c.   When a gene is activated                  d.   Chromosome structure around a gene

                                              e.   Whether the gene is on offense or defense



11.   During fertilization,

_______                a.  Diploid cells get together                            b.  Haploid cells get together

c.  One diploid cell joins one haploid cell         d.  All of these can happen

                   e.  Fertility is, umm, made fertilaceous...


                    12.  If a cell is known to be secreting some sort of protein, then what cell

organelles can reasonably be expected to be in that cell?

______                 a.   Ribosomes and Golgi bodies            b.   Ribosomes and vacuoles

                  c.   Lysosomes and chloroplasts             d.   Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes

            e.   Only really cheap knock-off organelles






Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1. Give one organ or organ system that starts out as




2.   Where in a cell does each of these processes happen?




3.   What does it mean that a pair of chromosomes are homologous?




4.   Polyploidy -




Why is it



5.   The spindle fibers are made up of what particular cell structure?




6.   There are two forms of genetic redundancy.  Briefly explain how one of them works.



7.    What is a mosaicism?




8.  Briefly describe how hybrid vigor works.





9.   What is the function of chaperonins?




10.  What are two different ways that gender is set in separate-sex organisms?


11.  What is founder effect?



12.   What are two features that make HIV escape mutants able to change someone from HIV-positive to AIDS patient?


13.  Radiation effects on cells often do not show up until after a cell division.  Briefly explain why.



14.  Name two specific types of vacuoles.


15.   The two different major functions that happen during interphase -


16.  Transfer RNA has two attachment points.  What attaches to them?




Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   Give three sets of differences between -








2.    Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart, give the coded amino acid sequence.

Starting   ______________________________________________________________________________________

Strand       T A C  C  G  A  A  G  G  T  A  A  G  C  A  G  T  A  T  T  T  G  C  G  A T  T


mRNA   ____________________________________________________________________________________






3.   Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -










4.    Put the four phases of actual mitosis in order, and for each one describe one thing that particularly happens during that phase.




5.   According to Hardy-Weinberg, a population needs certain conditions for allele ratios to not change.  What are three such conditions?  


6.    What are three sets of differences between mitosis and meiosis?











7.   Describe (don’t just give a term) four different types of reproductive isolation.







Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


What ability “turns on” to make a cancer malignant?  Three Points.



Why do microvilli tend to wiggle?  Three Points.



For Three Points each, what facts support the endosymbiosis theory? 




What two funding-rich areas of research are particularly interested in telomeres?  Two Points Each.



What would it mean if a cell had three Barr bodies?  Three Points.




When would a frameshift mutation not run on to the end of a gene sequence?  Three Points.




When cells turn into cancer, they spend less and less time in interphase.  Why?  Three Points.





Calories (capital AC@) are used to measure the energy in foodMetric calories (little Ac@) are used to measure energy also.   What=s the number relationship between the 2 types of calories?  Three Points.



The study of which disease led to the discovery of hybrid vigor?  Three Points.




The “ball” shape of an early human embryo is not a ball.  What shape is it (Two Points), and why is it that shape (Three Points)?








SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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