SCI 135 - Third Exam Fall 2017


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1. With many recessive alleles

_______    a. The code is not actually used                    b. The chromosome is missing
                c. The produced protein doesn’t work            d. All of the above
                                            e. They were shy as baby alleles

        2. The cells in a sweat gland would be expected to each have a lot of

_______    a. Cilia         b. Golgi bodies         c. Nucleoli        d. Cytoplasmic inclusions         e. Smelly bits

        3. Position effects show up as

_______    a. Movement of organelles in the cell
                b. Scrambling of organization in multicelled systems
                c. How efficiently cells move in the environment
                d. How easily particular genes can be accessed and used
                e. What happens when you hang on the monkey bars too long

        4. Newly-made proteins are helped into their “proper” shape by

_______    a. Twisting RNA         b. Chaperonins        c. Tertiary enzymes         d. Storage carriers
                                                    e. An instructional text message

        5. The “ploid” part of haploid and diploid refers particularly to

_______    a. How many divisions happen            b. What stage of the cell cycle something happens in
                c. Whether a cell is mobile or not         d. How many sets of chromosomes
                                    e. Whatever it is, the word is weird

        6. The structure around the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope because

_______    a. It has 2 membranes        b. It encloses information        c. It can be exported to other cells
                d. It can be sealed and unsealed            e. You can’t mail one without a stamp

        7. What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?

_______    a. Nuclear and cytoplasmic         b. Internal and external        c. Smooth and rough
                d. Open and closed                                e. Regular and extra crispy

        8. Which requires membrane carriers?

_______    a. tRNA         b. Facilitated diffusion         c. mRNA        d. Secretion         e. Cellular wifi

        9. Which is a component of the cytoskeleton?

_______    a. Nanofibers         b. Endoplasmic cartilage        c. Cytotubules         d. Microfilaments
                                e. Do they get little teensy casts when it breaks?

        10. Which is potentially the most damaging kind of mutation?

_______    a. Addition         b. Translocation         c. Recessive         d. Dominant
                                    e. The one that makes giant spiders

        11. Histones are used for

_______    a. Exporting secretions             b. DNA packaging            c. Moving chromosomes
                d. Connecting membranes                e. The tops of the stone walls

        12. The damage that radiation has on cells most commonly comes from

_______    a. Disrupting movement through the membrane
                b. Changing the nucleotides in the DNA
                c. Breaking DNA in several places
                d. Making cells more susceptible to infection
                e. When it doesn’t give you super powers


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What are two different organelles that are molecular complexes?


2. What is the “pull strength rule” for spindle fibers?

3. Explain what the term genetic linkage means.

4. Give each one’s disadvantage, compared to the other one (be fairly specific!) -

5. The cells lining our intestines are covered with microvilli. Why?

6. Explain why a cell attacked by prions eventually stops working properly.

7. What is meant by the genetic code being redundant?

8. What is apoptosis?

9. What are the two different general functions that go on in an interphase cell?


10. What two abilities must an HIV escape mutant have to be truly dangerous?


11. How can someone recognize when movement of a material through a membrane is active transport?

12. What, technically, is a gene?

13. Homologous pairs of chromosomes are matched – matched how?

14. What two areas of well-funded medical research are focused on telomerase?


15. In DNA replication, why is neither of the new chromosomes really “new”?

16. Cytokinesis could happen in any one of three different cell cycle stages – what are two?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Give three sets of differences between -




2. Define these terms associated with chromosome structure:





2.  Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -




4.  For the four phases of mitosis (so not the one between), name the phases in order and give one specific thing for each that happens particularly in that phase.





5.  For four different types of vesicles or vacuoles, give the name and function:





6a.  Briefly explain the endosymbiont theory.

6b.  What two structures are associated with the endosymbiont theory?


7.  Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart, give the coded amino acid sequence.
Strand   T  A  C  A  G  C  C  A  A  C  T  G  G  G  C  C  C  G  T  A  G  A  C  G  A  C  T

mRNA _________________________________________________________________________________________


Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

What ability does a cancer cell “unlock” to turn a tumor malignant? Three Points.

Why do microvilli “wiggle”? Three Points.

What structures in a cell can act like tiny conveyor belts to move things around? Three Points.

What’s the only term for the exam where spelling counts? Three Points.

Where’s the word Golgi come from? Three Points.

What is mtDNA? Three Points.

A low chromosome number can mimic asexual reproduction. How? Three Points.

Why do polar bodies exist? Three Points.

Why do Barr bodies exist? Three Points.

Cancer pretty much only arises in cells that normally perform what function? Three Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby