SCI 135 - Third Exam Spring 2017
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1.  Chromatin is

_______    a. What captures light energy during photosynthesis
                b. A cellular digestive enzyme
                c. The material in most cell walls
                d. A complex of DNA wrapped around proteins
                e. What really cheap jewelry is made of

        2.  Which mutation is likely to have the biggest effect?

_______    a. Translocation         b. Addition        c. Substitution         d. Erudition
                                e. The one that whacks your DNA upside the head

        3.  Which structures have a lot of RNA in them?

_______    a. Mitochondrion & golgi body               b. Lysosome & chromosome
                c. Nucleolus & ribosome                        d. Flagella & cilia
                                                e. The gooey ones

        4.  What makes rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?

_______    a. Ridges         b. Nucleosomes        c. Branches         d. Ribosomes
                            e. It grows in a bad cell neighborhood

        5.  Which are involved in a very similar function?

_______    a. Prions and chaperonins                 b. Ribosomes and cell walls
                c. Nuclei and chloroplasts                  d. Lysosomes and Barr bodies
                                e. Students and bugs you spray with Raid

        6.  Transfer RNA would be doing its job in a

__________    a. Nucleus         b. Ribosome         c. Golgi body        d. Lysosome         e. Bus station

        7.  A damaged body cell may receive a message to go through

_______    a. Rejuvenation             b. Recycling            c. Intense repair             d. Apoptosis
                                e. An online course in dealing with their situation

        8.  The nuclear envelope is called that because it

_______    a. Is folded over                                      b. Is a regular membrane in a special place
                c. Is two membranes thick                        d. Is a special delivery of the golgi bodies
                                    e. Always arrives just after its deadlines

        9.  Meiosis produces

__________    a. 4 diploid cells         b. 2 diploid cells         c. 4 haploid cells        d. 2 haploid cells
                                                                e. Your what does what -?

        10. When material moves by active transport, it moves

_______    a. Only by endocytosis
                b. Only by endocytosis and exocytosis
                c. From a higher concentration to a lower concentration
                d. From a lower concentration to a higher concentration
                e. Like a little salsa dancer

        11. The watery material inside a cell is the

_______    a. Cellular matrix         b. Cytoplasm        c. Intramembrane medium         d. Microplasm
                                                                e. Squeezy juice

        12. The reason that ionizing radiation like X-rays is so dangerous is that it can

_______    a. Produce holes in cell membranes
                b. Change the shapes of many proteins
                c. Cause multiple DNA breaks
                d. Produce excess heat in the nucleus
                e. Make super-powered mutants that want to take over the world



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Define mutation.

2.  What are two cell organelles that probably began as endosymbionts?


3.  What, technically, is a gene?

4.  How is a cell with microvilli different from a cell without them?

5.  Show with arrows how each material below should move, given that the membrane (the dividing line between the boxes) is permeable to them all:
85% Water
10% Sodium
5% Sugar
50% Water
35% Sodium
15% Protein

6.  Chromosomes are only visible as actual features during cell division. Why are they in a visible form at that time? What purpose is served?

7.  What are two cell organelles that should be more numerous in cells that produce secretions?


6.  The two materials that together make up chromatin -


7.  What is one function of a centromere?

10. What are histones?

11. Name two cytoskeleton components.

12. Give each one’s advantage, compared to the other one -

13. What is an allele?

14. What two abilities must an HIV escape mutant have to be truly dangerous?


15.  Explain why radiation affects cancer cells much more than most regular body cells - what exactly is happening to kill the cancer but leave the other cells relatively unaffected?

16.  What is the function of telomerase?


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1.  Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart, give the coded amino acid sequence.
Strand   T  A  C  A  A  C  G  A  A  C  A  G  G  G  G  C  C  C  T  A  G  A  C  G  A  T  C

mRNA _________________________________________________________________________________________


2.  Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -




3.  Pick two of these three genetics terms, and explain how each one works.

4a. Two different things that happen during transcription in a cell.

4b.  Two different things that happen during translation in a cell.


5.  What are three different ways that
         fresh-water organisms deal with osmosis?


6.  Give three sets of differences between -




7.  For four different types of vesicles or vacuoles, give the name and function:





Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Our cells are slightly more dilute than ocean water. Why? Three Points.

Why are mitochondria especially useful in evolutionary studies? Three Points.

What two areas of human health may be greatly affected by research on telomeres? Three Points each.

What would it mean if a species has no genders? Three Points.

What type of animal makes an extra copy of every X-code before they leave the nucleus? Three Points.

Why is mitochondrial DNA better for tracking evolution than nuclear DNA? Three Points.

How did the cows originally get mad cow disease? Three Points.

Where is the likeliest place to find a surviving polyploidy mutation? Three Points.

How can we share a “recent” ancestor with chimpanzees if they have 48 chromosomes and we have 46? Three Points.



SCI 135 

Michael McDarby