SCI 135 - Third Exam Spring 2019


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1. A bad fertilizer solution has a lower concentration of water than found in the root cells
                        of the treated plant. Which bad thing should happen?

_______    a. Osmosis from roots out         b. Osmosis from soil in        c. Nutrients diffuse into roots
                d. Nutrients diffuse out of roots                    e. The plant won’t look pretty

        2. Which of these are the DNA-spooling proteins?

_______    a. Prions         b. Chaperonins         c. Histones        d. Microtubules         e. Spoolies

        3. Which serves as a cell’s transport channel system?

_______    a. Cell membrane         b. Spindle         c. Vesicles        d. Endoplasmic reticulum         e. Time Warner

        4. Singlet-doublet chromosomes are sometimes used to produce

_______    a. Dominant traits         b. Gender        c. Recessive traits         d. Transfer RNA
                                                        e. Cute little crochet patterns

        5. A cell’s internal structures can be built from all of these except

_______    a. Membranes         b. Microstruts         c. Microtubules        d. Microfilaments         e. Microband-aids

        6. When treated with radiation, cancer cells are likely to die

_______    a. As soon as the radiation hits them            b. After the cell has divided
                c. Just after they absorb the radiation            d. They don’t die, they just become non-cancerous
                                        e. And no one is going to try to save them

        7. Recessive alleles are usually

_______    a. Codes that can’t be transcribed            b. Codes that can’t be translated
                c. Codes for non-working proteins            d. Missing codes
                                        e. Not as shy as you would think

        8. If a gene sequence mutates, it will certainly

_______    a. Cause major problems         b. Cause some sort of problem        c. Be a different allele
                d. Have no actual effect                            e. Be used in a zombie movie

        9. Which cell function is performed by organelles that probably began as endosymbionts?

_______    a. Mitosis         b. Movement         c. Digestion        d. Photosynthesis
                                            e. Is this an immigrant thing-?

        10. Which of these is generally a bad thing?

_______    a. Diploid         b. Metaploid         c. Polyploid        d. Haploid
                                    e. Weird sound: “Ploid, ploid, ploid...”

        11. The function of a nucleolus mostly involves

_______    a. DNA copying             b. DNA processing             c. RNA storage
                d. A double membrane                         e. Boring stuff

        12. Fruit flies that had little eyes developing all over had a(n)

_______    a. Extra chromosome         b. Missing chromosome        c. Egg abnormality
                d. Hox gene mutation                        e. Problem fitting glasses

Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What limits how far up a plant root pressure can move water?

2. Give two different pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiont theory.


3. Two areas of high-funded research that are interested in telomeres -


4. Two features that make HIV escape mutants particularly dangerous -


5. What is a Barr body?

6. Give two different ways that meiosis is different from mitosis -



7. Why is a substitution point mutation less dangerous than an insertion or deletion?

8. In which organelles do the following happen?


9. A chromosome is mostly a combination of what two different types of molecules?


10. What are on the two functional ends of a transfer RNA molecule?  (what do they attach to?)


11. If a cell is full of Golgi bodies, what is that cell probably doing?

12. For a high chromosome number (compared to low), what’s the biggest -


13. Briefly define the two types of genetic redundancy.


14. What is apoptosis?

15. What are two different things that attach to centromeres?


16. What is cytokinesis?

17. What are the two different major functions of interphase?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Using this DNA code give the messenger RNA sequence and, using the chart available with the exam, give the coded amino acid sequence.
Strand     T A C T G T C C A G T A C G C A T G T A G T G G A C T

mRNA ___________________________________________________________________________________


2. Give three sets of differences (other than the associated genders) between -




3. For the four phases of mitosis (so not the one between)...
PHASES IN ORDER One specific thing for each that happens particularly in this phase





4. Give three sets of differences between -




5. What are three different ways that fresh water organisms keep osmosis from destroying their cells?


6. For the three basic layers of an early embryo, give -




7. For four different types of vesicles or vacuoles, give the name and function:






Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

What cell structure “activates” when a cancer becomes malignant? Three Points.

What exactly was the function of the salt in the diffusion lab experiment? Three Points.

Where in a human are you most likely to find microvilli? Three Points.

What is a karyotype? Three Points.

Two cultures of the same types of cells taken from humans the same day, one survives much longer in the lab. What is probably true about the source of the cells? Three Points.

What could be called “evil chaperonins”? Three Points.

What exactly do position effects change, genetically speaking? Three Points.

When tumors are targeted with radiation, why are multiple simultaneous beams used? Three Points.

What is the evolutionary significance of unequal crossing over? Three Points.

Why are the called polar bodies? Three Points.

What shape is the “ball embryo” shape in humans (Three Points), and why is it that shape (Three Points)?


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby