SC 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2010

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                1. For any of the mass extinctions of the past, what was absolutely the necessary early step?

_______     a. Make it really cold            b. Block out sunlight            c. Kill off most of the plants            d. Develop a major disease
                                                                    e. Get the Department of Life to sign off on it


                2.  Cytokinesis happens when

_______     a. Cells divide         b. Cells migrate        c. Populations migrate         d. Enzymes activate        e. People who speak Latin name things


                3.  When a group almost goes extinct, it can create a

_______     a. Bottleneck effect                 b. Founder effect                c. Crossing over effect                 d. Temporal shift
                                                    e. Loss of friends - they're always complaining!


                4. A layer of rust in ancient fossils is a marker for the rise of

_______     a. Land organisms         b. Animals        c. Photosynthesis         d. Mass extinctions        e. Bad rustproofing companies


                5.  Embryo cells become tissues through

_______     a. Mutation         b. Differentiation         c. Fertilization        d. Activation         e. A lengthy application process



                6.  Which statement is about specificity?

_______     a. Cytokinesis always gives equal-sized daughter cells                            b. Heat alone can be used in chemosynthesis
                 c. Stomach enzymes can only work in stomach acid                              d. Intestinal enzymes can digest sucrose but not Splenda
                                                            e. It specifically specifies the specialness of species

                7.  The "plant problem" was solved when it was realized

_______     a. That plants could be bred artificially                                    b. That global warming might be slowed with plants
                  c. How different the early Earth was than today                      d. That osmosis could not pop the cell walls
                                                                e. That plants really aren't troublemakers

                8.  One phase of the cell cycle largely reverses another - what are the two?

_______     a. Interphase & metaphase             b. Telophase & prophase            c. Anaphase & metaphase             d. Interphase & telophase
                                                                            e. What, can't they make up their minds?

                9.  Which should not come out of a mitochondrion?

_______     a. Glucose             b. Carbon dioxide             c. ATP            d. Water             e. Music

                10. Which is not a critical nutrient for plants?

_______     a. Minerals             b. Phosphates             c. Chlorophyll             d. Nitrates             e. Twizzlers

                11.  Evolution turns out to be changes over time in

_______     a. Cofactors             b. Metabolic pathway             c. Entropy            d. Gene pool             e. Popularity

                12. The most productive part of aerobic respiration is

_______     a. Photosynthesis         b. Electron transport chain        c. Krebs cycle         d. Glycolysis        e. It iPhone app



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What exactly happens when a protein denatures?


2. Why would the Snowball Period have contributed to a period of rapid evolutionary advancement?


3.  What are two different nitrogenous wastes?

4.  During fertilization, what goes through fusion?

5.  The three levels of a food chain, in order -


6.  For oxygen debt -
In what
of tissues?
7.  What two things are coupled in a coupled reaction?


8.  What happens during interphase that is -
9.  What exactly is a vitamin?


10. In a food chain, what ultimately happens to most of the -



11. Organisms probably evolved the abilities useful for land-living while in what two watery environments?


12. RNA is a good candidate as the main part of the first "living" molecular systems. Why?


13. Give a definition for each -
14. What are two different ways that niche isolation happens?


15. The two main uses for glucose in plants -


16. For a cell plate -
Where & when
would one be
What is


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Describe how the two types of indirect (noncompetitive) enzyme inhibitions work.



2.  For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
  Photosynthesis   Molecular
  Movement onto Land   Multicelled
3.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name: Materials or Energy Used Materials Produced




4.  According to the Hardy-Weinberg rules, what has to be true about a population for there to be NO change in allele frequencies over time?




5.  What are four different things that make the process of meiosis different from the process of mitosis?






6.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
                        High Frequency               \                                 Visible Range                         /                               Low Frequency             
                         *                              *     /     *             *                                                  *      \       *



7.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?




8.  Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature. A. Why is the rate dropping off here? B. What is this point called? C. Why is the rate rising here?
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   A
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                      *                                         *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******
                                                                     Increasing Temperature  > 

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Under what conditions can four different mitosis phases look the same? Three Points.

What type of organisms have been found to be mechanically isolated? Three Points.

Life seems to break the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - why doesn't it? Three Points.

What sort of substances are often irreversible enzyme competitors? Three Points.

Why did the first scientists that dove to hydrothermal vents want to look at them? Three Points.

Why do lipids have so many Calories? Three Points.

Why don't biologists like the "poof" explanations for the origins of Life? Three Points.

What's the "wackier" version of panspermia? Three Points.

There may still be ancient, non-cellular Life around - what is it? Three Points.

What symbionts are critical to the success of land plants (Two Points), and what do they do? (Three Points)




Michael McDarby.

SCI 135

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