SC 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2010

Each question's number is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions relate to multiple sections).


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                1.  A poison works through irreversible direct inhibition of an enzyme:

_______     a. It attaches permanently to the active site                                              b. It attaches temporarily to the active site
                  c. It attaches permanently somewhere other than the active site                d. It attaches temporarily somewhere other than the active site
                                                                        e. This is a very sadistic first question...

                2.  All of the energy-moving reactions in a given system are specifically known as

_______     a. Systematics             b. Megachemistry             c. Metabolism             d. Respiration             e. Bob


                3.  What fuses during fusion?

_______     a. Chromosomes             b. Genes             c. Haploid nuclei             d. Diploid nuclei             e. Can these fuses burn out?

                4.  Which is not a feature that the first "living" systems needed?

_______     a. Reproduction             b. Cells             c. Evolution              d. Self-organization             e. Retirement plans

                5.  Enzymes are affected by temperature because temperature

_______     a. Changes how electrons move in the molecules                b. Can break the membrane                c. Disrupts the enzyme's DNA
                  d. Moves and shakes the molecules                            e. Sneaks up behind the enzymes and frightens them

                6.   One surprising implication of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is that

_______      a. No one expected mutations to be important                          b. Small populations can evolve faster than large ones
                   c. Migration doesn't matter                    d. All of these                            e. They didn't beat these 2 math guys to death

                7.  Panspermia is an idea about

_______     a. Fertilization             b. Embryo development            c. Beginnings of Life on Earth             d. Population growth
                                                                    e. A really really unsuccessful restaurant


                8.  When the leaves turn to bright colors in the fall, what are those colors?

_______     a. Degraded chlorophyll             b. Cellulose             c. Glucose            d. Carotenoids             e. Nature's makeover


                9.  When a protein denatures, it

_______     a. Attaches to a substrate             b. Changes shape            c. Comes apart into amino acids             d. Shifts to a new function
                                                                            e. Gets really self-conscious and quiet


                10.  Plants use glucose for

_______     a. Feeding animals                b. Energy storage and reproduction                c. Energy storage and structure
                  d. Reproduction and structure                            e. Whatever they want - plants are evil that way


                11.  Oxygen debt typically happens in

_______     a. Muscles under high demand                 b. Plants in intense light                c. Respiratory surfaces                 d. Brain cells
                                                                    e. Banks that really want you to pay them back


                12.  What are coupled in coupled reactions?

_______     a. Enzymes & substrates                 b. Enzymes & coenzymes                c. Enzymes & cofactors                 d. Exergonic & endergonic
                                                                    e. The reactions with deep, abiding respect for each other...or the hot ones...



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What happens to the alleles in a population as that population evolves in changing circumstances?


2.  For typical plant growth lights -
Why are
Why are
they not
3.  Briefly explain or show how a regulatory site works.


4.  When ATP gets used, what are the products?


5.  What are two different things that happen during a normal meiosis that do not happen during mitosis?


6. What are the two most likely "staging areas" from which organisms could move from the water to the land?


7.  Put these in order of increasing complexity: Cells, Organs, Tissues.


8.  What are the basic levels, in order, of the energy pathway through food chains?


9.  What exactly is activation energy?


10. What sort of role in cell chemistry is generally played by minerals?


11.  When do the two different types of genetic redundancy happen?


12.  Briefly describe the "plant problem" in Life Origin Theory.


13.  For either of the first 2 Laws of Thermodynamics -
Number or


14.  What are the three basic types of nitrogenous wastes?


15. Something in the fossil record gives us a pretty good idea of when photosynthesis arose. What is it?


16. Photosynthesis probably evolved as a combination of what two pre-existing abilities?




Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Briefly describe how three different types of reproductive isolation work. A single term is NOT enough, this needs a short description.  






2.  Below is a graph showing how enzyme activity, measured through the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, reacts to changes in pH (NOT temperature!). Fill in: A) The name given to the pH where the graph peaks; B) Why the graph peaks there; C) and D) What's happening to the enzyme molecules as the rate drops off (C) below the peak; and (D) above the peak.

                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   D
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                        *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******
                                                                               Increasing pH > 

3.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?






4.  For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
  Movement onto Land   Primordial
5.  Plants have nutrient needs besides the materials directly needed for photosynthesis. Give two different nutrients they need, and for each, tell how the plants use that nutrient.




6.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name:  Materials or Energy Used Materials Produced




7.  Give the names and something that happens in the three stages of aerobic respiration.







Link to Answer Key.


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Briefly explain how mistakes during meiosis can add to genetic information. Three Points.

Why do polar bodies exist? Three Points.

When human embryos become "hollow balls," what shape are they really (Three Points), and why that shape? Three Points.

When someone does a genome of a species, what are they really doing? Three Points.

Although Splenda is a sugar molecule, it has no calories. Why? Three Points.

What is weird about the definition of a vitamin? Three Points.

What is a Calorie? Three Points.

Why are creation ideas for the beginnings of Life not considered "scientific"? Three Points.

Where is a good place to look today for primordial soup? Three Points.

What is uniformitarianism? Three Points.

When looking at fossils, how can it be determined where on the planet those fossil layers formed? Three Points.

Why is disease not a reasonable cause for mass extinctions? Three Points.

What is Nemesis? Three Points.

What "retunes" the energy in reradiation? Three Points.



BI 171



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