SC 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2011

 

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE. 

 

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                              NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.

 

 

1.   Fusion is something that happens to

 

_______                a.  Electrons during photosynthesis            b.  Light frequencies during photosynthesis            c.  Nuclei during fertilization

d.  Enzymes during inhibition                                                            e.  Stuff that fuses, yo?

 

 

 

 

2.   The most likely type of molecular complexes to have led to Life:

 

_______                a.  Carbohydrates                 b.  RNAs                                c.  DNAs                         d.  Water                        e.  Living

 

 

 

 

3.   How particular a protein is for attaching to a substrate is called

 

_______                a.  Selectivity                 b.  Specificity                 c.  Exclusivity              d.  Attachability                    e.  Sluttiness

 

 

 

 

4.   The breaking of what usually leads to denaturation?

 

_______                a.  Amino acids               b.  Covalent bonds             c.  Ionic bonds                 d.  Hydrogen bonds        e.  De nature bonds, mon.

 

 

 

 

5.   The critical type of energy for chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents is

 

_______                    a.  Ions                       b.  ATP                       c.  Heat                       d. Light                    e.  Enthusiasm 

 

 

 

 

6.   Which is true?

 

a.  Spindles are made at the centrioles and attach to centromeres

b.  Centromeres are made at the centrioles and attach to spindles

_______                c.  Centrioles are made at the spindle and attach to centromeres

         d.  Spindles are made at the centromeres and attach to centrioles

e.  The things you read when you don=t have a dartboard...


 

 

 

7.    Plants require a nitrogen source so that they can

 

_______                a.  Capture sunlight                          b.  Make proteins                c.  Move water                       d.  Make ATP

                                                e.  Impress the lady plants

 

 

 

 

8.   The idea that Life originated elsewhere and was brought to the early Earth is known as

 

_______                a.  Panspermia                                      b.  Translocation                                       c.  Transplantation              

                             d.  Extrasolar origins                                                    e.  Uninvited guest hypothesis

 

 

 

 

 

9.   Evolution changes used to be seen in  _____, but now scientists look for  changes in  _______.

 

_______                a.  Traits...membranes                  b.  Populations...gene pools                    c.  Genes...mutations

                             d.  Proteins...enzymes                                     e.  Magazines...internet sites

 

 

 

 

 

10.   The main positive effect of the Snowball Period was probably

 

_______                a.  Spread plants to land                              b.  Connected land masses                        c.  Allowed mammals to flourish

                             d.  Increased competition                                                            e.  It was really fun

 

 

 

 

 

11.   What runs essentially just like mitosis?

 

_______                a. Crossing over            b.  Fertilization            c.  Meiosis I            d.  Meiosis II            e.  The Bachelor

 

 

 

 

 

                      12.   Aerobic respiration is approximately how many more times efficient than anaerobic respiration?

 

_______                    a.  1000                    b.  100                c.  20                d.  2                e.  I thought that math was off-limits...


 

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER.  

 

Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.

 

1.   Briefly explain how a coupled reaction works.

 

 

2.   What are the three levels of a classic food chain, in order?
 

 

   
3.   Briefly describe two different types of niche-based isolation.
 

 

 
4.   What are two ways, exactly, that cofactors and coenzymes help enzymes work?
 

 

 

5.   Briefly explain the general idea of the endosymbiont theory.

 

 

 

6.   What are the two major, different functions of interphase?
 

 

 
7.   What are two different nitrogenous waste products?
 

 

 
8.   Only two aspects of the Hardy-Weinberg Rule were surprising to people working with evolutionary theory - what were those 2 aspects?
 

 

 

9.   What is found in the fossil record to indicate when photosynthesis first arose?

 

 

 
10.   What two things are combined, usually, to make ATP?
 

 

 
11.  As they go through a food chain, what ultimately happens to most of the -

MATTER?

 

 
ENERGY?

 

12.   Two completely different uses for carotenoids in plants -
 

 

 

13.   What is the evolutionary significance of crossing over?

 

 

 

14.   Briefly describe what happens at an enzyme=s regulatory site.

 

 

 
15.    Main uses plants have for glucose -
 

 

 

 

LONG  ANSWER. 

 

Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.

 

1.  For the four phases of mitosis (remember, one of the phases is not part of division!), name the phases in order and for each one, describe one thing that occurs only during that phase.
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
2.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
 

Cambrian

Explosion

 

Multicelled

Systems 

 

Molecular

Competition

 

Aerobic

Respiration

 

Primordial

Soup

 

Movement
onto Land

 

Prokaryote

Cells

 

Photosynthesis

3.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name: Materials or Energy Used Materials Produced
 

 

   
 

 

   
4.   What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans? 
 

 

 
 

 

 
5.  For mass extinctions -

Common early

step -

 

Possible

cause -

 

Another possible

cause -

 

Another possible

cause -

 

6.   Below is a graph showing how enzyme activity, measured through the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, reacts to changes in pH (NOT temperature!).  Fill in:  A)  The name given to the pH where the graph peaks; B) Why the graph peaks there;  C) and D) What=s happening to the enzyme molecules as the rate drops off (C) below the peak; and (D) above the peak.
 

                                                                         A
                                                                          *
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   D
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******
                                                                           B                                                                  
 
                                                                               Increasing pH > 

 

7.   At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:  Violet.  X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue. Ultraviolet.

        High Frequency                                                     \                      Visible Range                   /    Low Frequency            

 

                        *                                                     *     /      *        *                                    *       \     *

 

 

 

Link to Answer Key

 

BONUS QUESTIONS.

 

Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.

 

Animal cell cytokinesis can happen in which stage / stages of the cell cycle?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What structure is present in animal cell mitosis but not supposed to be present in plant cell mitosis?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What organisms actually get a second use out of their polar bodies?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What=s the difference between an embryo and a fetus?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What type of organisms has mechanical isolation been found in?  Three Points.

 

 

 

Folks who claim that Life had to have been created because it breaks the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics are forgetting what important detail about the Law?  Three Points.

 

 

 

Any trait produced by a pathway has to be a multiple-gene trait.  Why?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What are the other terms for substrates?  Three Points Each.

 

 

 

What often produce irreversible enzyme inhibitions?  Three Points.

 

 

 

What are calories actually a measurement of?  Three Points.

 

 

 

Where can the parts of primordial soup still be found?   Three Points Each.

 

 

 

What causes reradiation?  Five Points.

 

 

 
 

 

 

Michael McDarby.

SC 135

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