SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2012


Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.





On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                  NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.


                        1.   The main effect of the Snowball period was

_______                    a.  Extinction cleared the way for new forms

                                 b.  Greatly increased competition

                                 c.  Cold was favored by new species

                                 d.  Ice moved species around

                                 e.  Many many snowmen



                        2.   End-product inhibition should always involve

_______                    a.  Protein production & ATP                    

    b.  Direct inhibition and ADP

                                 c.  Temperature and pH effects

                                 d.  Metabolic pathways & indirect inhibition

                                 e.  Inhibition, and some sort of product…at the end…



                        3.   The particular step that produces a zygote

_______                    a.  Embryogenesis                b.  Fusion                               c.  Oogenesis

             d.  Organogenesis                 e.  Zygotogenesis



                        4.   What works by lowering activation energy?

_______                    a.    ATP                                 b.   DNA                                 c.  Enzymes

                                d.   Heat                                   e.   How about lowering expectations?



                        5.   Evolution actually changes the population of

_______                    a.  Species                             b.  Enzymes                           c.  Families

                                d.  Alleles                               e.  Ames, Iowa (but that’s a secret)



                        6.   As pH varies from optimal, enzymes lose efficiency from

                                 a.  Ion effects on hydrogen bonds               b.  Disconnection of ATP

_______                    c.  Lack of respiration                                d.  Inhibition

                                    e.  They just don’t care as much as when they started




                        7.   A sedimentary layer of rust is evidence of

_______                    a.  An asteroid impact                                     b.  A volcanic eruption

                                 c.  An ice age                                                 d.  Photosynthesis

                                                            e.  Lack of rustproofing



                        8.   Reradiation involves

_______                    a.  Changes in frequency                 b.  Jumping of electrons

                       c.  Changes in wavelength               d.  All of these

                                                e.  Mutational vomiting



                        9.   Coenzymes are

_______                    a.  Always vitamins                                  b.  Sometimes vitamins

             c.  Always cofactors                                 d.  Sometimes cofactors

                                    e.  Always annoying



                        10.  Virtually every mass extinction has as an early step

_______                    a.  Widespread disease                    b.  Huge drop in temperature

                       c.  Loss of plant life                         d.  Asteroid impact

                                                e.  Nobody shows up for work



                        11.  Coupled in coupled reactions:

_______                    a.  Enzymes & genes            b.  Exergonic & endergonic

                                c.  Inflow & outflow             d.  Electrons & protons

                                                            e.   Stupidity & violence



                        12.   Which process makes a lot of ATP?

_______                    a.  Any metabolic pathway                 b.  Electron transport chain

                                 c.  Krebs cycle                                  d.  DNA synthesis

                                                            e.  The ATP-making process






Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   What is the founder effect?


2.   What are two different things that happen during glycolysis?



3.    Show the three steps, in order, of organisms types in any food chain.


4.     What are two different types of molecules that have specificity?


5.   The two likeliest staging areas for the movement of Life onto the Land -


6.   What two different tissues can go into oxygen debt?


7.   Land plants could not exist without their symbiotic partners -


type of


What do

they do

for the plants?

8.   Briefly explain how the second law of thermodynamics applies to a food chain.




9.   Two different nitrogenous waste products -



10.  Explain how hybrid vigor works.




11.  What are two different types of isolation that can happen to groups sharing the same space / ecosystem?  Just a name is fine.



12.  Chemosynthesis was discovered at hydrothermal vents.  Where were the vents?




13.  What happens during differentiation?



14.   The two major different uses for carotenoids -



15.  Why is RNA thought to have been part of the first “living” molecular complexes?




16.   What is panspermia?




17.  Two features the very first “living” systems had to have -


18.  Two features those living systems would not have had at first, but had to have eventually -






Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   According to the Hardy-Weinberg rules, what has to be true about a population for there to be NO change in allele frequencies over time?




2.   Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature.   A.  Why is the rate dropping off here (the downslope after the peak)?  B.  What is this point called (Where the peak lines up with the temperature axis)?  C.  Why is the rate rising here (the upslope heading toward the peak)?


3.   For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name Exact Materials or Energy Used Exact Materials Produced



4.   At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: 

Violet.   X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue.   Ultraviolet.


                                           High Frequency            \                        Visible Range                       /                Low Frequency            

                                    *                                         *   /      *          *                                       *           \    *



5.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
  Movement onto Land   Photosynthesis  


















6.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans? 




7.   Plants have nutrient needs besides the materials directly needed for photosynthesis.  Give two different nutrients they need, and for each, tell how the plants use that nutrient. 
Nutrient How that nutrient is used




Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


Why do we know bizarre physical attributes of beetles?  Three Points.



What species have gone through a bottleneck?  Three Points each.



Which processes are like parking a car in a garage?  Three Points.



Why would the product of a metabolic pathway have to be a part of a multiple gene trait?  Three Points.




What sorts of materials often produce irreversible enzyme inhibition?  Three Points.



The optimal temperature of what human process is about 93o F?  Three Points.



What ability is often found in cofactors and coenzymes that enzymes generally lack?  Three Points.



What’s the relationship between a calorie and a Calorie?  Three Points.




Why are most religion-based explanations for the beginnings of Life rejected by biologists?  Three Points.




What does the moon Titan have to do with primordial soup?  Three Points.





Michael McDarby.

SCI 135

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