SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2013


Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.





On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.




                        1.    Founder effect involves

_______                       a.  Migration by a small group in a large population

                                    b.  The relationship of plants to animals

                                    c.  Reduction of a population by near-extinction

                                    d.  The very beginning of a chemical pathway

                                    e.  A saying that ends in, “losers, weepers”




                        2.    The “P” in ATP stands for

_______                       a.  Power                    b.  Phosphate             c.  Potassium

                                    d.  Photosynthesis                            e.  My Precious




                        3.   Ultraviolet light is more energetic than violet, so it should have

_______                       a.  Shorter wavelengths                   b.  More electrons

                                    c.  Longer wavelengths                   d.  More protons

                                                            e.  A better tan




                        4.   How well an enzyme works at different temperatures or pH levels

                                                is most closely linked to

_______                       a.  Cofactors                                    b.  Coenzymes

                                    c.  Hydrogen bonds                          d.  ATP supply

                                                            e.  Their union contract




                        5.   Nitrogen-based wastes are leftovers from the

_______                       a.  Respiration of lipids                   b.  Respiration of proteins

                                    c.  Digestion of lipids                      d.  Digestion of proteins

                                                            e.  Proteination of lipidition




                        6.   Carotenoids can be very useful as

                                    a.  Components of root structure

                                    b.  Components of leaf structure

_______                        c.  Absorbing and changing atmospheric nitrogen

                                    d.  Capturing some light frequencies

                                    e.  One of those details I’ve completely forgotten




                        7.    What are coupled in a coupled reaction?

_______                       a.  Enzymes and inhibitors

                                    b.  Enzyme reactions and non-enzyme reactions

                                    c.  Enzymes and substrates

                                    d.  Exergonic and endergonic reactions

                                    e.  Reactions that have visited




                        8.   What particular evolutionary development was critical to the

                                                appearance of sexual reproduction?

_______                       a.  Ovaries & testes                          b.  Photosynthesis

                                    c.   Paired chromosomes                  d.  Life on land

                                                            e.   Naughty thoughts




                        9.   A thick layer of rusty sedimentary rocks is a fossil marker for

                                                the first appearance of

_______                       a.  Protocells                                     b.  Photosynthesis

                                    c.  Multicelled life                              d.  Primordial soup

                                                                     e.  Junk cars




                        10.   Evolution is a change in  ________ over time

_______                       a.  A mutation           b.  Metabolism          c.  A gene pool

                                    d.  An individual                  e.  Hairstyles




                        11.   Light coming through space dust changes frequencies according

                                                to the materials in the dust in a process called

_______                       a.  Reradiation          b.  Redirection          c.  Reflection

                                    d.  Recompensation             e.   Re-resomething




                        12.  Specificity is a term that explains

_______                    a.  How a protein is not changed by a gene mutation

                                 b.  How well a species fits into an ecosystem

                                 c.  The fit between an enzyme and a substrate

                                 d.  How an enzyme works at a particular temperature

                                 e.  Why holiday gifts fail





Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   In an ecosystem, what eventually happens to most of the -





2.   What is panspermia?



3.   Life on land probably used two different ecosystems as “staging areas” for the transition.  What were they?



4.   Describe with one example of how an enzyme might lower the activation energy of a reaction.




5.   Cofactors and coenzymes tend to do a particular thing better than enzymes – what is that thing?



6.   What are two nutrients needed by plants that are not used directly in photosynthesis?


7.   What are two different major challenges faced by the first organisms moving to fulltime life on land?


8.   Oxygen debt is normally done in what body tissue?



9.    Producers use two different production processes.  What are they?


10.  Two features needed by the very first “living” systems -


11.  Two features living systems had to develop early, but not right at the beginning -


12.  In fusion (biological) -

What 2



What is

the cell

then called?

13.  Briefly explain why the Snowball Period was a critical “push” toward the evolution of complex animals.



14.  It is thought that the first “living” molecular complexes were probably RNA.  What are two reasons why RNA works for that?



15.  What is explained by the rules of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?




16.  If a cell product is made with a metabolic pathway, then that product is a multiple-gene trait.  Briefly explain why.








Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.




Movement onto Land
















2.   For the steps of aerobic respiration -





3.   For the main photosynthesis reactions:


Exact Materials or Energy Used

Exact Materials Produced


4.   For mass extinctions -

Common early

step - 


cause - 

Another possible

cause -


Another possible

cause -


5.   Briefly describe how three different types of reproductive isolation work.  A single term is NOT enough, this needs a short description.  


6.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans? 




7.   Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.




Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


A human embryo, in the “ball” stage, is actually shaped more like a disc.  Why?  Three Points.



What is an example of hybrid vigor?  Three Points.



What is an example of a bottleneck effect?  Three Points.



According to E = mc2, what is Energy (conceptually, not mathematically)?  Three Points.



If a pet doesn’t need a particular vitamin in their food, what is probably true of their metabolism?  Three Points.



What abnormal tissue often is able to go into oxygen debt?  Three Points.



Explain the difference between a Calorie and a calorie.  Three Points.



How is the “plant problem” uniformitarianism?  Three Points.



Where can primordial soup materials still be found?  Three Points Each.



What two groups of organisms can act as nutritional symbionts for land plants?  Three Points Each.



Why do berries change color from green to not-green?   Three Points.




SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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