SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2014

Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                    NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.


                        1.   In coupled reactions,

_______                       a.  There are always a pair of enzymes working

                                    b.  Endergonic reactions depend upon exergonic reactions

                                    c.  Exergonic reactions depend upon endergonic reactions

                                    d.  DNA supplies two code copies

                                    e.  Eventually, there’s going to be a fight about money


                        2.   The urea cleared through our kidneys is produced when

_______                       a.  Lipids are metabolized                 b.  Proteins are made

                                    c.  Lipids are made                            d.  Proteins are metabolized

                                                            e.  Nasty stuff happens


                        3.    The “plant problem” is an issue with

_______                       a.  Tracking energy in an ecosystem

                                    b.  Using chlorophyll to generate electricity

                                    c.   Mass extinctions

                                    d.   Explaining the beginnings of Life

                                    e.   Folks that think their houseplants are conspiring against them


                        4.    Which underlies the process of differentiation in embryos?

_______                       a.  Different cells have different genes in them

                                    b.  Different cells have different chromosome combinations

                                    c.  All genes get used, but not to the same degree

                                    d.  All cells have same genes but use different ones

                                    e.  Some sort of sumthin makes them different


                        5.   X-Rays are very energetic -  it would follow that the radiation has

_______                        a.  Very short wavelengths                b.  Very long wavelengths

                                    c.  A lot of mass                                d.  Radioactivity

                                    e.  I’m not getting “a lot of energy” as an answer, am I?


                        6.   The Snowball Period was critically important to Life because it

                                    a.  Changed conditions dramatically

                                    b.  Greatly increased competition

_______                       c.   Reduced livable areas to just a few places

                                    d.  All of the above

                                    e.   Was really fun


                        7.    Descendants of a group that went almost extinct produce a

_______                       a.  Reduction effect                           b.  Miersten effect

                                    c.  Bottleneck effect                         d.  Founder effect

                                                e.  Much shorter Christmas card list



                        8.    Primordial soup was originally based on materials discovered in

_______                       a.   Hydrothermal vents                                 b.  Space dust

                                    c.   Primitive prokaryotes                             d.  Clouds

                                                             e.   Belly button lint



                        9.   Evolution was once regarded as how a population changes over time,

                                                but now it’s considered a change in

_______                       a.  Reproductive rate             b.  The gene pool

                                    c.  Reproductive isolation                d.  The species description

                                                         e.  Facebook “Likes”



                        10.  In end-product inhibition

_______                       a.  The pathway product inhibits the first enzyme

                                    b.  The pathway product inhibits the last enzyme

                                    c.  The last enzyme inhibits the first enzyme

                                    d.  The last enzyme blocks the first substrate

                                    e.   You’re embarrassed by what the hairdresser does



                        11.   Enzymes keep their shapes mostly using

_______                       a.  Mineral bonds                               b.    Specificity

                                    c.  Hydrogen bonds                           d.  Enzymatic interactions

                                    e.  A complex arrangement of belts and buckles



                        12.  Minerals often act as

_______                       a.  Enzymes                            b.  Coenzymes

                                    c.  Inhibitors                           d.   Cofactors

                                    e.  If they don’t even know you, it’s so annoying!





Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   Other than no selection or mutation, what are two Hardy-Weinberg factors that are needed to keep an allele around?


2.   What are two different things that happen during glycolysis?


3.   For any major plant nutrient not used directly in photosynthesis -



nutrient -

How is


nutrient used?

4.  Fill in for one of the special layers that form in an early embryo?




One system

that develops

from that layer

5.   Why does any calculation of food Calories have to be a non-precise estimation?




6.   Briefly explain why, as you go up food chain levels from producers to upper levels of consumers, there is so much less energy in each level.




7.  What type of ancient sediment gives a strong clue as to when photosynthesis first spread across the world?




8.   What are two different uses for carotenoids?


9.   What are HOX genes?




10.  What are two different circumstances where a enzyme might be inhibited irreversibly?


11.  Explain, using the proper terms, how the enzyme sucrose gets the 2 bound sugars in sucrose to come apart.




12.  What is it about oxygen that allows aerobic respiration to produce so many more ATPs than anaerobic?




13.  What are polar bodies?




14.  Enzyme effectiveness drops off above the optimal temperature.  Why?




15.  Enzyme effectiveness drops off below the optimal temperature.  Why?




16.  What is a zygote?






Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name Exact Materials or Energy Used Exact Materials Produced




2.   Briefly describe how three different types of reproductive isolation work.  A single term is NOT enough, this needs a short description.



3.    What are three sets of differences between mitosis and meiosis?





4.   What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans? 




5.   Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.





6.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.










Life on









7.   What are four of the challenges of moving to land from aquatic systems?




 Link to Answer Key



Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


A study released this week showed how genes for many snake venoms had evolved from extra copies of other genes.  What mutation can produce extra gene copies?  Three Points.


The only piece of a sperm that should get into the egg cell is the nucleus.  Why is no other part allowed in?  Three Points.



In humans, the “ball” shape of the early embryo isn’t really a ball.

What shape is it?  Three Points.


Why is it that shape?  Three Points.


What is a knockout mouse?  Three Points.



Why are there “more species of beetles than any other group” (even though that’s not really true)?  Three Points.



What surprising discovery was made about populations that had been inbreeding for a long time?  Three Points.



What is it about the Tylenol-processing pathway that  can make the chemical very poisonous?  Three Points.



There are two reasons why ATP is really suited for what it does.  For Three Points Each, what are those reasons?




When pepsin¸an enzyme found in the stomach, leaves the stomach, it just stops working.  Why?  Three Points.



What’s odd about the definition of vitamins, that often is gotten wrong?  Three Points.





SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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