SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2015
                                                        Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

            1.  Ammonia is a product of

_______   a. Fungal processing of atmospheric nitrogen                 b. Respiration of proteins
                c. Production of amino acids                                        d. Bacteria in the digestive system
                            e. Whoever puts it into those bottles in the cleaning supplies aisle

            2.  The Law of Thermodynamics that says that energy can’t disappear but might change form
                                is also know as the __________ Law.

_______    a. Conservation         b. Persistence        c. Entropy         d. Universal Constant
                                                        e. World’s Most Boring

            3.  Photosynthesis, continually dependent on light input, is

_______    a. Respiratory         b. Anaerobic            c. Exergonic             d. Endergonic
                                                    e. Really whiny in the dark

            4. An oily scum in the primordial soup would have been an important

_______    a. Source of energy             b. Feature of protocells            c. Reflector of direct sunlight
                d. Former of molecule complexes                e. Feature in early pasta production

            5.  Chemosynthesis moves ______ energy into ______

_______    a. Heat...glucose             b. Ultraviolet...ATP            c. Chemical...ATP             d. Electrical...glucose
                                                                        e. Musical...Ipods

            6.  The RNA World hypothesis that the first “living molecules” were RNA complexes is based upon

_______    a. RNA being in prokaryote cells                        b. RNA having both DNA and protein-like properties
                    c. RNA being the universal genetic code              d. RNA’s role in holding cell membranes together
                                                e. Where the darts hit the molecule dartboard

            7.  Cofactors are usually

_______    a. Enzymes             b. Minerals            c. Vitamins             d. ATP
                                        e. Saying embarrassing things on Twitter

            8.  The color of autumn leaves is the color of

_______    a. Degraded chlorophyll             b. Carotenoids            c. Cellulose             d. Nitrogenous wastes
                                                        e. Isn’t that from the Fall Leaf Fairy?

            9.  The main product of the electron-transport chain is

_______    a. Glucose             b. Oxygen             c. ATP            d. Enzymes             e. Transported electrons

            10. The energy it takes to get a reaction started is the

_______    a. Initiation Energy             b. Activation Energy            c. Enzyme-mediated Energy
                d. Beginning Energy                        e. Original use of Kickstarter

            11. In order to make ATP, plants need a source of

_______    a. Protein             b. Potassium            c. Protons             d. Phosphates
                                    e. Well, I’m guessing that it starts with a “p”...

            12. The “plant problem” has been an issue in

_______    a. Theories about the first Life            b. Mass extinctions            c. Effects of global climate change
                d. Feeding rising human populations                e. Trying to raise your house plants to be polite


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Briefly explain how a bottleneck effect works.

2.  What are the basic steps that run opposite in photosynthesis and aerobic respiration? Put the proper step in the middle.


3.  What, technically, is meant by the metabolism of a system?

4.  What, technically, is a gene?

5.  The organic materials originally detected in space dust has since been found in what two other places, in support of the idea of primordial soup?


6.  There are two reasons why an enzyme’s reaction rate drops off at temperatures below the optimal temperature.


7.  Aerobic respiration is considered much more efficient than anaerobic – that assessment is based on what comparison?

8.  What is panspermia?

9.  As it works its way through a food chain, what eventually happens to most of the -


10a. What a calorie is technically a measurement of -

10b. Relationship between a calorie and a Calorie.

11. How does end-product inhibition work?

12a. In an oxygen debt, what builds up?

12b.  How does that material get “paid off”?

13. What are the two main uses that plants have for the glucose they make?


14. What does it mean if a protein denatures?

15. Briefly explain how ATP participates in coupled reactions.

16. The Snowball Period had a huge impact on the history of Life on Earth – briefly explain why.


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1.   Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.



2.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name Exact Materials or Energy Used Exact Materials Produced



3.  According to the Hardy-Weinberg rules, what are four things that have to be true about a population for there to be NO change in allele frequencies over time?



4.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.



Life on









5.  Below is a graph showing how enzyme activity, measured through the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, reacts to changes in pH (NOT temperature!). Fill in: A) The name given to the pH where the graph peaks; B) Why the graph peaks there; C) and D) What's happening to the enzyme molecules as the rate drops off (C) below the peak; and (D) above the peak.

                                                                          *   A
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   D
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******

                                                                    pH ---->

6.  What are four of the challenges of moving to land from aquatic systems?



7.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
                  Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
High Frequency          \                        Visible Range                       /                                  Low Frequency                  
    *                        *   /   *         *                                                *   \   *

8.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

What is odd about the history of pet store hamsters? Three Points.

What’s going on at the enzyme active site that makes them help reactions happen? Three Points.

What’s a ligand? Three Points.

What geological process is going on at most hydrothermal vents? Three Points.

What feature is found in almost every living thing that produces uric acid? Three Points.

What type of cells, other than muscle, can do oxygen debt? Three Points.

What part of lipid molecules is used in respiration processes? Three Points.

Most creation stories have the created Earth pretty much the way it exists today – why would this be a common element to all of the old stories? Three Points.

We have a pretty good idea when photosynthesis appeared in the history of Life – what is the main clue used? Three Points.

What was the first clue that there was a “Snowball Earth” in the very distant past? Three Points.




SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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