SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2015
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1.  Differentiation involves

_______   a. The same enzyme doing different jobs
                b. How members of groups do different jobs

                c. Embryo cells using different genes to do different jobs
                d. Air for respiration moving between different pressure zones
                e. A really terrible way to lead off an exam

        2.  When sperm and egg cell nuclei fuse, that cell is now

_______   a. An egg         b. A fetus         c. An embryo        d. A zygote         e. Headed for trouble

        3.  What part of a population really changes during evolution?

_______    a. Gene pool         b. RNA types        c. Organelles         d. Environment
                                        e. Where they order their pizza

        4.  Which would use heat as a main energy source?

_______    a. Embryo development             b. Enzyme action             c. Chemosynthesis
                d. Photosynthesis                e. That thing your brother does to your wrist

        5.  A reaction that releases enough energy to keep itself going is

_______    a. Metabolic             b. High-efficiency             c. Endergonic
                d. Exergonic                             e. Always bragging about it

        6.  The most likely "staging areas" for the invasion of the land from the water:

_______    a. Fresh water and hydrothermal vents                b. Fresh water and tidal zones
                c. Tidal zones and hydrothermal vents                 d. Fresh water and underground
                                                            e. Atlantis and Venice

        7.  When a small group migrates away and has only those alleles present to pass on to their
this is

_______    a. Genetic drift         b. Founder effect         c. Mutation        d. Habitat isolation         e. Tough luck

        8.  A layer of rusty sediments in the ancient fossil record marks when

_______    a. Life went onto land                 b. Photosynthesis spread                c. People first appeared
                d. Dinosaurs disappeared                                e. Atlantis' junkyards sank

        9.  When people compare the efficiency of different types of respiration, they are generally measuring

_______    a. ATP production         b. Oxygen use        c. Glucose production         d. Nitrate use
                                                e. Aren't they measuring the efficiency???

        10.  When a group goes almost extinct, reduced to a small fractional group, this is

_______    a. Genetic drift         b. Bottleneck effect         c. Mutation        d. Habitat isolation         e. Tough luck

        11. The early oceans had an oily "scum" on the surface that contributed to the development of

_______    a. Protocells         b. DNA         c. Digestion        d. Flotation         e. Politics

        12. Which are vitamins?

_______    a. Carbohydrates             b. Minerals            c. Lipids             d. Coenzymes
                        e. Do they have letters? They need letters...and sometimes numbers...


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Fill in for one of the embryonic cell layers -
An organ /
structure / system
derived from that layer -

2.  Describe (don't just give a term for) two different types of reproductive isolation that can split off a subgroup living in the same place as the main group.

3.  What are two different types of nitrogenous wastes?
4.  What does it mean if an enzyme has high specificity?

5.  What are two different groups of living things that would contain many species of decomposers?

6.  In every mass extinction event, the trigger has to make something happen early to actually bring about the extinctions - what's the something?

7.  According to theory, when the Earth's "living things" were just big organic molecules, what are two abilities those molecules had to have to lead on to current forms of life?

8.  According to theory, what are two abilities the first truly "living" systems needed eventually to lead on to current forms of life?

9.  According to the Hardy-Weinberg rule, what are two different non-selection-related features that must apply to keep an allele's presence steady over time? Remember, some features are "must be" and some are "must not be".

10.  What are two different ways that carotenoids get used?

11.  Briefly, what is the panspermia?

12.  As energy moves, level-by-level, up a food chain, the laws of thermodynamics apply to things that happen. Give the law (name or number) for each of these -
Some energy gets
lost as random motion /
heat at every transfer.
There's less energy
in every level, but
the rest has to be somewhere.
13. When enzyme activity is graphed for pH, the rates drop off on either side of the optimum. Why?

14a. What sort of organism helpers were probably essential to plants being able to move onto land?

14b. What function do these organisms perform for the plants?


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



2.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.








Life on









3.   Briefly describe the three different ways that
        enzyme inhibition
can work.



4.  For oxygen debt -
Tissue it
happens in -
Conditions it
happens during
What is

5.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
                  Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
High Frequency          \                        Visible Range                       /                                  Low Frequency                  
    *                        *   /   *         *                                                *   \   *

6.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Exact Materials or Energy Used    
Exact Materials Produced    

7.  Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature. A. Why is the rate dropping off here?   B. What is this point called?    C. Why is the rate rising here?


                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   A
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******

                                                                    Temperature ---->

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

One of the first HOX genes was discovered in fruit flies, then an equivalent found in mice. What feature were those genes associated with? Three Points.

Embryos go through a “ball” stage that isn’t a ball in humans – what shape is it (3 Points) and why is it that shape (3Points)?

When hybrid vigor was first discovered, it connected what two diseases? Three Points Each.

What species have gone through a bottleneck? Three Points each.

What surprising discovery was made about populations that had been inbreeding for a long time? Three Points.

The optimal temperature of what human process is about 93o F? Three Points.

What's the difference (not counting the capitalization) between calories and Calories? Three Points.

If a pet doesn’t need a particular vitamin in their food, what is probably true of their metabolism? Three Points.

Why do trees change color in the fall? What happens? Five Points.




SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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