SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2016
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


MULTIPLE CHOICE.

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1.  The “plant problem” was faced by

_______    a. Ecologists explaining food chains                    b. Animals during a mass extinction
                c. Scientists trying to explain the first Life            d. The first life on land
                                        e. Folks with very noisy rose bushes



        2.  Glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules during

_______    a. Krebs / Citric Acid Cycle         b. Glycolysis        c. Electron Transport Chain
                 d. Calvin Cycle                    e. The latest Penn & Teller magic special



        3.  A founder effect involves

_______    a. The first reaction in a pathway                            b. Migration of a small group
                 c. When the land was first colonized                       d. Electron carriers and water
                                    e. A lost girl, what you say – “Found ‘er!”



        4.  Which would be true of an ongoing endergonic reaction?

________ a. It continually absorbs energy        b. First it absorbs energy, then continuously releases energy
                c. It continually releases energy       d. It could not be affected by enzymes
                                e. It has one of the weirder names in science



        5.  Enzymes are affected by changes in pH because

_______ a. The heat breaks the molecules apart                b. Inhibitors affect the substrates
              c. Activation energy is increased                        d. Ions can disrupt hydrogen bonds
                                        e. They really don’t like each other



        6.  How is a Calorie different from a calorie?

_______ a. They’re the same                             b. A Calorie measure Energy, a calorie measures heat
             c. One Calorie is a thousand calories      d. One calorie is a thousand Calories
                                    e. Um, upper case and lower case-?



        7.  Which process is a step in both photosynthesis and aerobic respiration?

_______ a. Krebs Cycle         b. Protein breakdown        c. Calvin Cycle         d. Electron transport chain
                    e. Both make steam come out of your ears when you read about them



        8.  When protein molecules are broken down

_______   a. All parts are used in respiratory pathways
                b. All parts are removed as wastes
                c. The carbon parts go into respiration and the nitrogen parts become waste
                d. The nitrogen parts go into respiration and the carbon parts become waste
                e. It’s really tough to find a garage that can fix them



        9.  Space dust far between the stars can be analyzed because of

_______   a. Pigments         b. Reradiation         c. Reflection        d. Spacecraft collections         e. Aliens




        10.  In both major energy processes, most of the ATP is made in the

_______  a. Cycles         b. Half-molecule process        c. Use of the light         d. Electron transport chain
                                e. Time when the workers are taking a Twitter break




        11. According to modern theory, evolution produces changes by affecting the

_______  a. Individuals         b. Gene pool         c. Isolation types        d. Ancestors         e. Stuff it now affects




        12. This term’s definition is connected particularly to the chemistry of humans -

_______   a. Active site         b. Microbiome         c. Inhibitors        d. Vitamins         e. Pizza addict




SHORT ANSWER.

Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  For oxygen debt -
Where does
it happen?
What
material
builds up?

2.  In order to qualify as “living,” what two abilities did the first living molecules have to have?

 

3.  What happens in the process of end-product inhibition?



4.  What happens during niche isolation? Do not use the word “niche” in the answer, define it.



5.  What do fungus and bacterial symbionts do for land plants?



6.  Two features of RNA that makes it a good candidate as the earliest “living molecular cooperative.”


 

7.  Explain what activation energy is.



8.  What are two different, general functions of carotenoids?


 

9.  What are two major challenges facing living things when they were adapting to life on land?


 

10. Briefly explain what panspermia is.



11. Why is chemosynthesis most likely to be the process of the first producers?



12. How do living things appear to "break" the 2nd Thermodynamics Law?



13. What are coupled reactions?



14. When working in enzyme systems, minerals are generally called –



15. How does hybrid vigor work?



16. The two likely “staging area” environments that allowed colonization of the land.
 



LONG ANSWER.

Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.

 



 

2.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
  Movement onto Land   Photosynthesis   Cambrian
Explosion
  Primordial
Soup
  Aerobic
Respiration
  Molecular
Competition
  Prokaryote
Cells
  Multicelled
Systems

3.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name
 
Exact Materials or Energy Used
   
Exact Materials Produced
   

4.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
       *                           *   /   *       *                        *   \   *



5.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



 



 

6.  Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature. A. Why is the rate dropping off here? B. What is this point called? C. Why is the rate rising here?

 

                                                                        
                                                                          *
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   A
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******
                                                                           B                                                                  
 

                                                                    Temperature ---->



7.  For mass extinctions -
Common early
step -
 
Possible
cause -
 
Another possible
cause -
 
Another possible
cause -
 

Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS.

Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

According to Einstein's E = mc2, what's the general relationship between matter and energy? Three Points.


What is happening at the molecular level that requires the testicles to be more-or-less outside of the body? Four Points.


For warm-bloodedness over cold-bloodedness, for Four Points Each, give one metabolic:
Advantage:


Disadvantage:


Why is it called “denaturing”? Three Points.


The asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs - where on Earth did it hit? Three Points.



You weigh a potted plant. One month later, you weigh it again and it has gained significant weight. Where exactly did the weight come from? Three Points.



Plants both release oxygen and then use it in aerobic respiration. Why is there so much “left over” for the world’s consumers? Three Points.



When atoms absorb electromagnetic energy, what tends to “jump”? Three Points.

 

SCI 135 

Michael McDarby

 

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