SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2016
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.

Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

            1.  During fertilization,

_______     a. Diploid cells get together                                b. Haploid cells get together
                  c. One diploid cell joins one haploid cell              d. All of these can happen
                                        e. Fertility is, umm, made fertilaceous...

            2.  Dietary minerals often are used in the body as

_______    a. Enzymes         b. Coenzymes         c. Vitamins        d. Cofactors         e. The rocks in our heads

            3.  The RNA World hypothesis tries to explain

_______    a. How the first cells formed
                b. How life formed with no photosynthesis for fuel

                c. What the first “living” molecular complexes might have been
                d. What supplied the first fuel molecules
                e. “In a world, where RNA blows stuff up and chases cars…”

            4.  The species that manage to barely survive a mass extinction event will probably still show a

_______    a. Major rise in mutations         b. Bottleneck effect        c. Founder effect         d. Shift in entropy
                                                e. Tendency to jump at any loud noise

            5.  The spot on an enzyme where an inhibitor is supposed to attach:

_______    a. Regulatory site         b. Control site        c. Deactivation site         d. Unlinking site
                                        e. No, of course it’s not the inhibitor site…

            6.  Which mutation will probably have the worst effect on the affected gene?

_______    a. Translocation of the gene                              b. Substitution point mutation in the gene
                c. Addition point mutation in the gene                d. Break and repair of the gene
                                    e. The one that reduces its self-esteem

            7.  Ammonia results from

_______    a. Respiration of proteins             b. Digestion of lipids            c. Digestion of proteins
                d. Respiration of lipids                    e. Some big bald ambiguous guy putting it in a bottle

            8.  The organic materials in primordial soup were first discovered

_______    a. In space dust         b. At hydrothermal vents        c. On the Earth’s moon         d. On a moon of Saturn
                                            e. In a very old can, behind all of the other cans

            9.  The term metabolism is particularly concerned with what part of a system?

_______    a. Carbon compounds         b. Energy         c. Enzymes        d. Reaction rates         e. Its love handles

            10. In dividing cells, actual cell division (cytokinesis) occurs

_______    a. Only in telophase            b. In anaphase or telophase            c. In telophase or interphase
                d. In interphase, telophase, or anaphase            e. When cell parts get really angry with each other

            11. Which process is closest to a “regular” mitosis?

_______    a. Fertilization         b. Meiosis I         c. Meiosis II        d. Meiosis III         e. LXVII

            12. Panspermia is

_______    a. A process during fertilization                                      b. About the first life on Earth
                c. How many compounds can be used in respiration        d. A type of chromosome-based mutation

                                e. A new food-preparation technique that probably won’t catch on


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  Radiation damage of DNA can result in cell death many different ways – give two.


2.  At temperatures below the optimal, there are two effects that reduce the effectiveness of enzymes – what are they?


3.  Aerobic respiration is considered much more efficient than anaerobic respiration. On what basis is this comparison made - how’s the efficiency decided?

4.  What are two non-selection features that a Hardy-Weinberg population has?


5.  The spindle fibers are made up of what particular cell structure?

6.  What are two different challenges facing any aquatic species on their way to being land-based?


7.  What effect of asteroids hitting the Earth is most directly connected to causing mass extinctions?

8.  Briefly explain where and under what circumstances oxygen debt occurs.

9.  What two features makes something a vitamin?


10. What is meiosis-related genetic redundancy?

Bonus (3 Points) - What is the other type of genetic redundancy?

11.  Briefly explain how a shift (either way) in pH can denature an enzyme.

12. In general, how do enzymes manage to speed up chemical reactions?

13. ATP is used in a lot of coupled reactions. What does that mean?

14. What is the basic function of HOX genes?

15. What, technically, is a gene?

16. Give the names or descriptions of the first two Laws of Thermodynamics.



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



2.  For the four phases of mitosis (so not the one between), name the phases in order and give one specific thing for each that happens particularly in that phase.





3.  Briefly describe how three different types of reproductive isolation work. A single term is NOT enough, this needs a short description.


4.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.





Life on|







5.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.



6.  For each of the major steps of aerobic respiration, give the name of the step and one important thing that happens specifically in that step.




7. For each of the germ layers of an embryo, give the name of the layer and one system that develops mostly from that layer.




Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Cancer cells do a lot of mutating, randomly activating different genes in the genome. What happens to most of the mutating cells? Three Points.

What basic function is pretty much always common in body cell types that can produce cancer? Three Points.

What group of living things often show a “family history” of polyploidy? Three Points.

When cells turn into cancer, they spend less and less time in interphase than the cells they used to be did. Why? Three Points.

Evolutionary pathways often show new DNA, new genes with new abilities. Where does this new stuff usually come from? Three Points.

Many toxins have effects on critical enzymes by ___________ them ___________bly. Three Points.

ATP can help reactions start two different ways – for Three Points Each, what are they?

What’s the relationship between calories and Calories? Three Points.

During eukaryote evolution, paired chromosomes were critically important for what process? Three Points.

What was the first piece of evidence for the Snowball Period? Three Points.

What was the chapter about that we didn’t get to? Three Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


Hit Counter