SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2017


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1. Nitrogenous wastes are produced when

_______    a. Starches are used for respiration        b. Fats are digested        c. Proteins are used for respiration
                d. Proteins are digested                                    e. Nitrogen is, like, spilled on the floor

        2. Which are also known as cofactors?

_______    a. Vitamins         b. Minerals         c. Calories        d. Coenzymes         e. Accomplices

        3. Periods of mass extinctions should also produce

_______    a. Bottleneck effects         b. Decomposer arrest        c. Founder effects         d. Consumer arrest
                                                            e. A big drop in property values

        4. Which would involve HOX genes?

_______    a. Limb placement         b. Light capture        c. Metabolic pathways         d. Disease resistance
                                                            e. Coughing up hairballs

        5. The second major photosynthesis reaction is what kind of reaction?

_______    a. Exergonic         b. Activated         c. Coupled        d. Oxygenation         e. The reactive kind-?

        6. Which developments in the history of Life specifically go together?

_______    a. Endosymbiosis and the Cambrian Explosion        b. Eukaryotes and photosynthesis
                c. Aerobic respiration and Life on Land                   d. 2 sets of chromosomes and sexual reproduction
                                                        e. Creepiness and crawliness

        7. In the middle of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is

_______    a. A cycle             b. An electron transport chain            c. Ammonia production
                d. A bit with half-glucose molecules            e. A spot where my memory just shuts right down

        8. The energy in a food chain

_______    a. Is all lost at the end         b. Is largely recycled        c. Is only there at the beginning
                d. Is lost at every transfer                e. Is completely based on Cap’n Crunch

        9. Which process is most like mitosis?

_______    a. Fertilization         b. Fusion         c. Meiosis I        d. Meiosis II         e. Mithreesis

        10. Which nutrient do land plants depend upon symbionts for?

_______    a. Nitrates         b. Carbon dioxide         c. Minerals        d. Phosphates         e. Pizza

        11. Which challenge of land led to adaptations which prevent land animals from
                            fully moving back to the water?

_______    a. Reproduction issues         b. Much more oxygen        c. Support & movement
                d. Direct sunlight                            e. Beachfront property not as cool

        12. Evolution changes what about a population over time?

_______    a. Allele ratios         b. The “average” individual        c. Gene pool         d. All of these
                                    e. Their annoying attitude toward other populations

Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Briefly explain these two types of reproductive isolation -


2. Explain what came to be known as the “plant problem.”

3. What were the 2 probable staging areas from which Life moved from the water to the Land?


4. Pick one embryonic germ layer, name it and give two organs or structures that form from it.


5. A zygote becomes an embryo when -

6. What is it about a shift in pH that can make an enzyme stop working?

7. What causes muscle cells to go into oxygen debt?

8. What is panspermia?

9. For glycolysis

10. What are two different catastrophic events that in the past have resulted in mass extinctions?


11. Briefly explain how enzymes speed up reactions. There are a couple of possible answers for this, just give one.

12. RNA has two abilities that make it a good candidate for the first near-Life molecular complexes. What are those two abilities (done by other things now)?


13. Two different basic functions of carotenoids -


14. What important evolutionary question was answered by the discovery of unequal crossing over?

15. Both major energy systems depend on the use of Hydrogens. To do what, exactly?

16. What are the two basic ways that ATP can energize a reaction?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Exact Materials or Energy Used
Exact Materials Produced

2.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.



3.  Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature. A. Why is the rate dropping off here?   B. What is this point called?    C. Why is the rate rising here?


                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   A
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******

                                                                    Temperature ---->

4.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.

onto Land











5.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



6.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
       *                           *   /   *       *                        *   \   *

7. For each of the germ layers of an embryo, give the name of the layer and one system that develops mostly from that layer.




Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

What are knockout mice? Three Points.

In what group has a lot of mechanical isolation been seen? Three Points.

What were Hardy and Weinberg trying to explain about observed evolutionary patterns? Three Points.

What is the meaning of E = mc2? Three Points.

Although it is sometimes claimed that life breaks the second law of thermodynamics, it doesn’t. Why not? Three Points.

What is a ligand? Three Points.

Why did no one expect ecosystems at hydrothermal vents? Three Points.

What is one of the basic ideas behind aerobic exercise? Three Points.

What cells other than muscle cells can go into oxygen debt? Three Points.

What’s the first step in determining the Calorie content of a food? Three Points.

Why are the “poof” explanations for the beginnings of Life not considered scientific? Three Points.

Where can primordial soup be found naturally today? Three Points Each.

What discovery led to the discovery of the Snowball Period? Three Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


Hit Counter