SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2017
Links connect to relevant parts of the online book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1.  Vitamins are

_______    a. Cofactors that humans can’t make                b. Cofactors that humans can make
                c. Coenzymes that humans can’t make              d. Coenzymes that humans can make
                                                e. The only reason I eat Cap’n Crunch

        2.  A centriole

_______    a. Holds chromatids together
                b. Produces spindle

                c. Catches most of the light for photosynthesis
                d. Helps move materials through the lipid part of a cell membrane
                e. Is some kind of foreign car

        3.  Evolutionary change is really change in the

_______    a. Individual         b. Species         c. Population size        d. Gene pool         e. Resale value

        4.  The aerobic phase of respiration is more efficient (produces more ATP)
                    than the anaerobic phase. About how much more efficient is it?

_______    a. Twice         b. Three times         c. 17 times        d. 200 times         e. Depends on its mood

        5.  Meiosis produces cells that are

_______    a. Haploid         b. Triploid         c. Diploid        d. Identical         e. Cranky

        6.  What kind of reactions are paired in coupled reactions?

_______   a. Heat and cold         b. Cofactor and coenzyme        c. Activation and enzymatic
                d. Exergonic and endergonic                e. The ones that go on

        7.  Enzymes do their basic job by

_______    a. Supplying activation energy         b. Lowering activation energy        c. Adding electrons
                d. Moving electrons around                            e. Just showing up and getting busy

            8.  If you had your choice of similar-strength lights that each put out only one color-range
                         of frequencies, which would be the best to grow a plant under?

_______    a. Red         b. Green         c. Purple         d. InfraRed        e. Chartreuse

        9.  Acid can denature an enzyme by

_______    a. Electrifying it         b. Changing its shape        c. Breaking it down         d. Sticking to it
                                                            e. Making it into a Denzyme

        10. Gills and lungs are mostly derived from

_______    a. Endoderm         b. Ectoderm         c. Mesoderm        d. Respoderm         e. Breathy bits

        11. Oxygen levels and modes of reproduction were

_______    a. Possible causes of mass extinctions                b. Restrictions on plant evolution
                c. Issues moving from the water to the land        d. All of these
                                e. Factored into underwater naughty movies

        12.  When non-carbohydrate molecules are broken down and processed for their energy,
                    their carbon “bits” are “fed into” the

_______    a. Krebs cycle         b. Calvin cycle        c. Electron transport chain         d. Glycolysis        e. Grinder 



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What are two nutrient types not directly used in photosynthesis but needed by plants?


2.  Give two different uses for carotenoids -


3.  What is the basic function of HOX genes?

4.  Why did the Snowball Period accelerate evolutionary change?

5.  Oxygen debt occurs -
In what
Under what

6.  What are the two totally different uses that plants get from glucose?


7.  Give one reason why an enzyme’s reaction rate is lower -

8.  The two major different functions that a cell may do during interphase -


9.  Briefly explain what reradiation is.

10. What’s it mean if an enzyme has a high specificity?

11. What is the founder effect?

12.  As it works its way along a food chain, what ultimately happens to -

13. The nitrogen-based wastes processed by our liver and kidneys - where (what source molecule) do the wastes originally come from?

14.  The two likeliest “staging areas” from which water organisms colonized land environments -


15. Define the term metabolic pathway.

16.   Other than no selection, what are two requirements for the Hardy-Weinberg Rule?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.











onto Land

2.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
       *                           *   /   *       *                        *   \   *

3.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Exact Materials or Energy Used
Exact Materials Produced

4.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibition can work.



5.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



6.  For the four phases of mitosis (so not the one between), name the phases in order and give one specific thing for each that happens particularly in that phase.





7.  Describe (don’t just give a term) four different types of reproductive isolation.



Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

How does crossing over contribute to evolution? Three Points.

What a sperm fertilizes is usually not an actual egg cell. Why not? Three Points.

ATP supplies energy to chemical reactions in 2 main ways - what are they, for 3 Points Each?

What human process has an optimal temperature below regular body temperature? Three Points.

What is the disadvantage of being endothermic (“warm-blooded”)? Three Points.

What makes most religion-associated Origin stories not “scientific”? Three Points.

Where’s the best place to find hydrothermal vents? Three Points.

What is the microbiome (Three Points), and what has recently been discovered about it (Three Points)?

What’s the difference (other than spelling) between a calorie and a Calorie? Three Points.

Why do trees change color in the fall? What happens? Five Points.

What does Hydrogen do in both respiration and photosynthesis? Three Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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